And it came to pass in the twelfth year, in the twelfth month, in the first day of the month, that the word of the LORD came unto me, saying,
A. M. 3417. B.C. 587. in the twelfth. On Wednesday, March 22, A.M. 3417, the twelfth year of Jeconiah's captivity, about a year and half after the destruction of Jerusalem, and at a time when Pharaoh was in power and prosperity
Son of man, take up a lamentation for Pharaoh king of Egypt, and say unto him, Thou art like a young lion of the nations, and thou art as a whale in the seas: and thou camest forth with thy rivers, and troubledst the waters with thy feet, and fouledst their rivers.
Thou art like
and thou art as
or, dragon. and troubledst.
Thus saith the Lord GOD; I will therefore spread out my net over thee with a company of many people; and they shall bring thee up in my net.
Then will I leave thee upon the land, I will cast thee forth upon the open field, and will cause all the fowls of the heaven to remain upon thee, and I will fill the beasts of the whole earth with thee.
And I will lay thy flesh upon the mountains, and fill the valleys with thy height.
To represent the power, rapaciousness, and cruelty of Pharaoh, he had been compared to a fierce young lion, and also to an immense, overgrown sea-monster, or crocodile; and here it is predicted that God would cast a net over him, by which many companies of people should drag him out of his rivers, and cast him into the open field, mountains, valleys, etc., to be devoured by birds and beasts of prey; that is, his ruin would be complete, and attended with terrible miseries to the Egyptians, and afford a large booty to their enemies.
I will also water with thy blood the land wherein thou swimmest, even to the mountains; and the rivers shall be full of thee.
Egypt, so called because interspersed by numerous canals, and overflowed annually by the Nile.
wherein thou swimmest
or, of thy swimming.
And when I shall put thee out, I will cover the heaven, and make the stars thereof dark; I will cover the sun with a cloud, and the moon shall not give her light.
put thee out
or, extinguish thee.
I will cover the heaven
Destroy the empire.
Overwhelm the dependent states.
The queen, or some state less than the kingdom.
All the bright lights of heaven will I make dark over thee, and set darkness upon thy land, saith the Lord GOD.
bright lights of heaven
Heb. lights of the light in heaven.
Heb. them dark.
set darkness upon
Involve the whole land in desolation and woe.
I will also vex the hearts of many people, when I shall bring thy destruction among the nations, into the countries which thou hast not known.
Heb. provoke to anger, or grief.
Yea, I will make many people amazed at thee, and their kings shall be horribly afraid for thee, when I shall brandish my sword before them; and they shall tremble at every moment, every man for his own life, in the day of thy fall.
For thus saith the Lord GOD; The sword of the king of Babylon shall come upon thee.
By the swords of the mighty will I cause thy multitude to fall, the terrible of the nations, all of them: and they shall spoil the pomp of Egypt, and all the multitude thereof shall be destroyed.
I will destroy also all the beasts thereof from beside the great waters; neither shall the foot of man trouble them any more, nor the hoofs of beasts trouble them.
Then will I make their waters deep, and cause their rivers to run like oil, saith the Lord GOD.
The neighbouring countries shall be in a state of quietness, like a river that smoothly glides along, having no longer a political crocodile to foul their waters, or to disturb their peace.
When I shall make the land of Egypt desolate, and the country shall be destitute of that whereof it was full, when I shall smite all them that dwell therein, then shall they know that I am the LORD.
destitute of that whereof
Heb. desolate from the fulness thereof.
This is the lamentation wherewith they shall lament her: the daughters of the nations shall lament her: they shall lament for her, even for Egypt, and for all her multitude, saith the Lord GOD.
It came to pass also in the twelfth year, in the fifteenth day of the month, that the word of the LORD came unto me, saying,
in the twelfth
That is, of the twelfth month, just a fortnight after the preceding prophecy.
Son of man, wail for the multitude of Egypt, and cast them down, even her, and the daughters of the famous nations, unto the nether parts of the earth, with them that go down into the pit.
That is, predict that they shall be cast down.
The cities and colonies of the celebrated nations afterwards enumerated.
Whom dost thou pass in beauty? go down, and be thou laid with the uncircumcised.
They shall fall in the midst of them that are slain by the sword: she is delivered to the sword: draw her and all her multitudes.
she is delivered to the sword
or, the sword is laid. draw.
The strong among the mighty shall speak to him out of the midst of hell with them that help him: they are gone down, they lie uncircumcised, slain by the sword.
Pharaoh is here represented as descending into the regions of the dead, whither many mighty warriors and potentates had gone before him, who welcome him to their dreary mansion.
Asshur is there and all her company: his graves are about him: all of them slain, fallen by the sword:
Whose graves are set in the sides of the pit, and her company is round about her grave: all of them slain, fallen by the sword, which caused terror in the land of the living.
The niches in the sides of the subterranean burying places.
or, dismaying. the land.
There is Elam and all her multitude round about her grave, all of them slain, fallen by the sword, which are gone down uncircumcised into the nether parts of the earth, which caused their terror in the land of the living; yet have they borne their shame with them that go down to the pit.
They have set her a bed in the midst of the slain with all her multitude: her graves are round about him: all of them uncircumcised, slain by the sword: though their terror was caused in the land of the living, yet have they borne their shame with them that go down to the pit: he is put in the midst of them that be slain.
A cell, or bier, in the sepulchral vault, in which the corpse was deposited.
all of them
There is Meshech, Tubal, and all her multitude: her graves are round about him: all of them uncircumcised, slain by the sword, though they caused their terror in the land of the living.
Supposed to be the Moschi, a people between Iberia and Armenia, from whom, probably the Muscovites are descended.
Probably the Tibarenians, a people of Pontus, west of the Moschians.
And they shall not lie with the mighty that are fallen of the uncircumcised, which are gone down to hell with their weapons of war: and they have laid their swords under their heads, but their iniquities shall be upon their bones, though they were the terror of the mighty in the land of the living.
That is, to the grave; and are buried in their armour, with their weapons lying by their sides, as was a very ancient practice in various nations.
their weapons of war
Heb. weapons of their war.
Yea, thou shalt be broken in the midst of the uncircumcised, and shalt lie with them that are slain with the sword.
There is Edom, her kings, and all her princes, which with their might are laid by them that were slain by the sword: they shall lie with the uncircumcised, and with them that go down to the pit.
Heb. given, or put.
There be the princes of the north, all of them, and all the Zidonians, which are gone down with the slain; with their terror they are ashamed of their might; and they lie uncircumcised with them that be slain by the sword, and bear their shame with them that go down to the pit.
The kings of Media, Armenia, and other nations north of Chaldea, or of the Syrians and others north of Judah, with "all the Zidonians," kings of Zidon, Tyre, and other cities of Phoenicia.
Pharaoh shall see them, and shall be comforted over all his multitude, even Pharaoh and all his army slain by the sword, saith the Lord GOD.
Pharaoh, who said he was a god, shall be found among the dead.
Shall console himself, when he sees all these mighty nations and proud conquerors in the same condition as himself.
For I have caused my terror in the land of the living: and he shall be laid in the midst of the uncircumcised with them that are slain with the sword, even Pharaoh and all his multitude, saith the Lord GOD.