Then all Israel gathered themselves to David unto Hebron, saying, Behold, we are thy bone and thy flesh.
A. M. 2956. B.C. 1048. An. Ex. Is. 443. all Israel
And moreover in time past, even when Saul was king, thou wast he that leddest out and broughtest in Israel: and the LORD thy God said unto thee, Thou shalt feed my people Israel, and thou shalt be ruler over my people Israel.
in time past
Heb. both yesterday and the third day. that leddest.
or, rule. ruler.
Therefore came all the elders of Israel to the king to Hebron; and David made a covenant with them in Hebron before the LORD; and they anointed David king over Israel, according to the word of the LORD by Samuel.
Heb. by the hand of.
And David and all Israel went to Jerusalem, which is Jebus; where the Jebusites were, the inhabitants of the land.
And the inhabitants of Jebus said to David, Thou shalt not come hither. Nevertheless David took the castle of Zion, which is the city of David.
And David said, Whosoever smiteth the Jebusites first shall be chief and captain. So Joab the son of Zeruiah went first up, and was chief.
Heb. head. Joab.
And David dwelt in the castle; therefore they called it the city of David.
the city of David
that is, Zion.
And he built the city round about, even from Millo round about: and Joab repaired the rest of the city.
So David waxed greater and greater: for the LORD of hosts was with him.
waxed greater and greater
Heb. went in going and increasing.
These also are the chief of the mighty men whom David had, who strengthened themselves with him in his kingdom, and with all Israel, to make him king, according to the word of the LORD concerning Israel.
A. M. 2949-2989. B.C. 1055-1015. An. Ex. Is. 436-476. the chief. The valiant men who assisted David in his advancement, and helped to establish him in his authority, were those, in all likelihood, that had accompanied him during his persecution by Saul
strengthened themselves with
or, held strongly with. to make.
And this is the number of the mighty men whom David had; Jashobeam, an Hachmonite, the chief of the captains: he lifted up his spear against three hundred slain by him at one time.
or, son of Hachmoni.
And after him was Eleazar the son of Dodo, the Ahohite, who was one of the three mighties.
This variation arises from the mutations of [V‚v] wav, and [YÙwd] yood; it being written here [DÙwdÙw] Dodo, and in the parallel passage [D‚veh] Dodai.
He was with David at Pasdammim, and there the Philistines were gathered together to battle, where was a parcel of ground full of barley; and the people fled from before the Philistines.
Ephes-dammim is here called Pas-dammim, by aphÊresis.
a parcel. In Samuel it is, "a piece of ground full of lentiles;" and there is probably a mistake of seˆrim, "barley," for ‚dashim, "lentiles," or vice-versa. Some, however, think there were both lentiles and barley in the field, which is not unlikely.
And they set themselves in the midst of that parcel, and delivered it, and slew the Philistines; and the LORD saved them by a great deliverance.
or, stood. and the Lord.
Now three of the thirty captains went down to the rock to David, into the cave of Adullam; and the host of the Philistines encamped in the valley of Rephaim.
of the thirty captains
or, captains over the thirty.
And David was then in the hold, and the Philistines' garrison was then at Bethlehem.
in the hold
And David longed, and said, Oh that one would give me drink of the water of the well of Bethlehem, that is at the gate!
of the water
And the three brake through the host of the Philistines, and drew water out of the well of Bethlehem, that was by the gate, and took it, and brought it to David: but David would not drink of it, but poured it out to the LORD,
And said, My God forbid it me, that I should do this thing: shall I drink the blood of these men that have put their lives in jeopardy? for with the jeopardy of their lives they brought it. Therefore he would not drink it. These things did these three mightiest.
that have put their lives
Heb. with their lives.
And Abishai the brother of Joab, he was chief of the three: for lifting up his spear against three hundred, he slew them, and had a name among the three.
Of the three, he was more honourable than the two; for he was their captain: howbeit he attained not to the first three.
Benaiah the son of Jehoiada, the son of a valiant man of Kabzeel, who had done many acts; he slew two lionlike men of Moab: also he went down and slew a lion in a pit in a snowy day.
who had done many acts
Heb. great of deeds. lion-like.
And he slew an Egyptian, a man of great stature, five cubits high; and in the Egyptian's hand was a spear like a weaver's beam; and he went down to him with a staff, and plucked the spear out of the Egyptian's hand, and slew him with his own spear.
a man of great stature
Heb. a man of measure. five.
Behold, he was honourable among the thirty, but attained not to the first three: and David set him over his guard.
Also the valiant men of the armies were, Asahel the brother of Joab, Elhanan the son of Dodo of Bethlehem,
Shammoth the Harorite, Helez the Pelonite,
Shammah, Shammoth, and as it is in ch. 27:8, Shamhuth, having all the same signification, appear to have been deemed perfectly interchangeable, and accordingly used indifferently.
Shammah the Harodite
Ira the son of Ikkesh the Tekoite, Abiezer the Antothite,
Sibbecai the Hushathite, Ilai the Ahohite,
The reading of [M@bunnay (ynnbm)] Mebunnai, for [Cibb@kay (ykbbs)] Sibbecai, seems to be occasioned by the mistake of [C‚mek] samech, for a [MÍm] mem, and a [N˚wn] noon, for a [Kaph] caph; and a difference in the vowel points.
Maharai the Netophathite, Heled the son of Baanah the Netophathite,
Heleb seems evidently a mistake for Heled, which is essentially the same with Heldai, the latter merely having a paragogic [YÙwd] yood.
Ithai the son of Ribai of Gibeah, that pertained to the children of Benjamin, Benaiah the Pirathonite,
Hurai of the brooks of Gaash, Abiel the Arbathite,
The sons of Hashem the Gizonite, Jonathan the son of Shage the Hararite,
Ahiam the son of Sacar the Hararite, Eliphal the son of Ur,
Hezro the Carmelite, Naarai the son of Ezbai,
Hezrai, Paarai the Arbite
Joel the brother of Nathan, Mibhar the son of Haggeri,
Igal the son of Nathan
the son of Haggeri. or, the Hagerite.
Ira the Ithrite, Gareb the Ithrite,
Uriah the Hittite, Zabad the son of Ahlai,
Jediael the son of Shimri, and Joha his brother, the Tizite,
Son of Shimri
Eliel, and Obed, and Jasiel the Mesobaite.