Now the sons of Reuben the firstborn of Israel, (for he was the firstborn; but, forasmuch as he defiled his father's bed, his birthright was given unto the sons of Joseph the son of Israel: and the genealogy is not to be reckoned after the birthright.
A. M. 2294, etc. B.C. 1710, etc. he was
For Judah prevailed above his brethren, and of him came the chief ruler; but the birthright was Joseph's:)
the chief ruler
or, the prince. By the chief ruler is meant first David, and after him the Messiah, agreeably to the celebrated prophecy of Jacob (Ge 49:10). The Syriac calls him "Christ the king," and the Arabic, "Messiah the king."
The sons, I say, of Reuben the firstborn of Israel were, Hanoch, and Pallu, Hezron, and Carmi.
Beerah his son, whom Tilgathpilneser king of Assyria carried away captive: he was prince of the Reubenites.
And his brethren by their families, when the genealogy of their generations was reckoned, were the chief, Jeiel, and Zechariah,
when the genealogy
And Bela the son of Azaz, the son of Shema, the son of Joel, who dwelt in Aroer, even unto Nebo and Baalmeon:
The city of Nebo was doubtless situated on or near the Celebrated mountain of the dsame name, east of Jordan.
And eastward he inhabited unto the entering in of the wilderness from the river Euphrates: because their cattle were multiplied in the land of Gilead.
unto the entering
That is, unto the borders of Arabia Deserta, which extends to the Euphrates.
And in the days of Saul they made war with the Hagarites, who fell by their hand: and they dwelt in their tents throughout all the east land of Gilead.
A. M. 2944. B.C. 1060
Heb. upon all the face of the East.
And the children of Gad dwelt over against them, in the land of Bashan unto Salchah:
The Gadites and the half tribe of Manasseh are joined to the genealogy of Reuben, because they inhabited the same country, and formed a sort of separate colony east of Jordan.
in the land
And they dwelt in Gilead in Bashan, and in her towns, and in all the suburbs of Sharon, upon their borders.
Heb. goings forth.
All these were reckoned by genealogies in the days of Jotham king of Judah, and in the days of Jeroboam king of Israel.
The sons of Reuben, and the Gadites, and half the tribe of Manasseh, of valiant men, men able to bear buckler and sword, and to shoot with bow, and skilful in war, were four and forty thousand seven hundred and threescore, that went out to the war.
Heb. sons of valour.
four and forty
And they made war with the Hagarites, with Jetur, and Nephish, and Nodab.
The Hagarites, and these other tribes, were descendants of Hagar, and dwelt, according to Strabo, in Arabia Deserta.
And they were helped against them, and the Hagarites were delivered into their hand, and all that were with them: for they cried to God in the battle, and he was intreated of them; because they put their trust in him.
for they cried
in the battle
And they took away their cattle; of their camels fifty thousand, and of sheep two hundred and fifty thousand, and of asses two thousand, and of men an hundred thousand.
Heb. led captive. camels. The camel, in Hebrew gamal, retained with little variation in all languages, is, according to the LinnÊan system, a genus of quadrapeds of the order pecora; comprehending the camel, properly so called, with two prominences; the dromedary, with a single one; the lama, or Peruvian camel, with the back even and the breast gibbose, and the pacos, or camel without any gibbosity. The camel, properly so called, is about 6Æ feet in height: its head is small; ears short; neck long, slender, and bending; legs long and slender, having four callosities on the fore legs and two on the hinder, on which it rests; feet soft, parted, but not thoroughly divided; bottom of the foot tough and pliant; tail about two feet in length, terminating in a tuft; and hair fine, soft, of considerable length, and of a dusky reddish colour. Besides the same internal structure as other ruminating animals, it is furnished with an additional bag for containing a quantity of water till wanted.
Heb. souls of men.
For there fell down many slain, because the war was of God. And they dwelt in their steads until the captivity.
until the captivity
And the children of the half tribe of Manasseh dwelt in the land: they increased from Bashan unto Baalhermon and Senir, and unto mount Hermon.
And these were the heads of the house of their fathers, even Epher, and Ishi, and Eliel, and Azriel, and Jeremiah, and Hodaviah, and Jahdiel, mighty men of valour, famous men, and heads of the house of their fathers.
Heb. men of names
And they transgressed against the God of their fathers, and went a whoring after the gods of the people of the land, whom God destroyed before them.
after the gods
And the God of Israel stirred up the spirit of Pul king of Assyria, and the spirit of Tilgathpilneser king of Assyria, and he carried them away, even the Reubenites, and the Gadites, and the half tribe of Manasseh, and brought them unto Halah, and Habor, and Hara, and to the river Gozan, unto this day.
and brought them.