So king Solomon was king over all Israel.
over all Israel
And these were the princes which he had; Azariah the son of Zadok the priest,
That is, great, chief, or principal men; for none of them were princes, in the common acceptation of the word.
or, chief officer.
Elihoreph and Ahiah, the sons of Shisha, scribes; Jehoshaphat the son of Ahilud, the recorder.
scribes. or, secretaries. recorder. or, remembrancer.
And Benaiah the son of Jehoiada was over the host: and Zadok and Abiathar were the priests:
And Azariah the son of Nathan was over the officers: and Zabud the son of Nathan was principal officer, and the king's friend:
son of Nathan
And Ahishar was over the household: and Adoniram the son of Abda was over the tribute.
tribute. or, levy.
And Solomon had twelve officers over all Israel, which provided victuals for the king and his household: each man his month in a year made provision.
These are doubtless to be considered as general receivers; for, as Sir John Chardin observes, "the revenues of the princes of the East are paid in the fruits and productions of the earth: there are no other taxes on the peasants."
And these are their names: The son of Hur, in mount Ephraim:
The son of Hur
The son of Dekar, in Makaz, and in Shaalbim, and Bethshemesh, and Elonbethhanan:
The son of Dekar
or, Ben-dekar. Shaalbim.
The son of Hesed, in Aruboth; to him pertained Sochoh, and all the land of Hepher:
The son of Hesed
or, Ben-hesed. Sochoh.
The son of Abinadab, in all the region of Dor; which had Taphath the daughter of Solomon to wife:
The son of Abinadab
or, Ben-abinadab. Dor.
Baana the son of Ahilud; to him pertained Taanach and Megiddo, and all Bethshean, which is by Zartanah beneath Jezreel, from Bethshean to Abelmeholah, even unto the place that is beyond Jokneam:
The son of Geber, in Ramothgilead; to him pertained the towns of Jair the son of Manasseh, which are in Gilead; to him also pertained the region of Argob, which is in Bashan, threescore great cities with walls and brasen bars:
The son of Geber
or, Ben-geber. Ramoth-gilead.
threescore great cities
These were the fortified cities; their gates and bars being covered with plates of brass.
Ahinadab the son of Iddo had Mahanaim:
or, to Mahanaim.
Ahimaaz was in Naphtali; he also took Basmath the daughter of Solomon to wife:
Baanah the son of Hushai was in Asher and in Aloth:
Jehoshaphat the son of Paruah, in Issachar:
Shimei the son of Elah, in Benjamin:
Geber the son of Uri was in the country of Gilead, in the country of Sihon king of the Amorites, and of Og king of Bashan; and he was the only officer which was in the land.
the country of Sihon
Judah and Israel were many, as the sand which is by the sea in multitude, eating and drinking, and making merry.
as the sand
And Solomon reigned over all kingdoms from the river unto the land of the Philistines, and unto the border of Egypt: they brought presents, and served Solomon all the days of his life.
And Solomon's provision for one day was thirty measures of fine flour, and threescore measures of meal,
Heb. bread. measures. Heb. cors.
Ten fat oxen, and twenty oxen out of the pastures, and an hundred sheep, beside harts, and roebucks, and fallowdeer, and fatted fowl.
Dr. Shaw understands ayil as the name of the genus, including all the species of the deer kind, whether they are distinguished by round horns, as the stag, or by flat ones, as the fallow deer, or by the smallness of the branches, as the roe.
See note on De 15:22.
Yachmur, rendered bubalus by the Vulgate, probably the buffalo; and though "the flesh of a buffalo does not seem so well tasted as beef, being harder and more coarse," yet in our times, "persons of distinction, as well as the common people, and even the European merchants, eat a good deal of it, in the countries where that animal abounds." Niebuhr, Descrip. de l'Arab p. 146.
For he had dominion over all the region on this side the river, from Tiphsah even to Azzah, over all the kings on this side the river: and he had peace on all sides round about him.
all the kings.
And Judah and Israel dwelt safely, every man under his vine and under his fig tree, from Dan even to Beersheba, all the days of Solomon.
And Solomon had forty thousand stalls of horses for his chariots, and twelve thousand horsemen.
And those officers provided victual for king Solomon, and for all that came unto king Solomon's table, every man in his month: they lacked nothing.
Barley also and straw for the horses and dromedaries brought they unto the place where the officers were, every man according to his charge.
or, mules, or swift beasts.
And God gave Solomon wisdom and understanding exceeding much, and largeness of heart, even as the sand that is on the sea shore.
as the sand
And Solomon's wisdom excelled the wisdom of all the children of the east country, and all the wisdom of Egypt.
the wisdom of Egypt
For he was wiser than all men; than Ethan the Ezrahite, and Heman, and Chalcol, and Darda, the sons of Mahol: and his fame was in all nations round about.
And he spake three thousand proverbs: and his songs were a thousand and five.
And he spake of trees, from the cedar tree that is in Lebanon even unto the hyssop that springeth out of the wall: he spake also of beasts, and of fowl, and of creeping things, and of fishes.
the cedar tree
The word airez, whence the Chaldee and Syriac arzo, and the Arabic and Ethiopic arz, and Spanish alerze, unquestionably denotes the cedar; it is thus rendered by the LXX. and other versions, [kedros] and by the Vulgate cedrus; and the inhabitants of mount Lebanon still call it ars. The cedar is a large and nobel evergreen tree, and grows on the most elevated part of the mountain, is taller than the pine, and so thick that five men together could scarcely fathom one. It shoots out its branches at ten or twelve feet from the ground; they are large and distant from each other, and are perpetually green. The wood is of a brown colour, very solid and incorruptible, if preserved from wet. The tree bears a small cone, like that of the pine.
And there came of all people to hear the wisdom of Solomon, from all kings of the earth, which had heard of his wisdom.