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Treasury of Scripture Knowledge: 1 Kings 3

Chapter 3

And Solomon made affinity with Pharaoh king of Egypt, and took Pharaoh's daughter, and brought her into the city of David, until he had made an end of building his own house, and the house of the LORD, and the wall of Jerusalem round about.

A. M. 2990. B.C. 1014. An. Ex. Is. 477. affinity

2 Chronicles 18:1 Ezra 9:14

and took

7:8 9:24 11:1

the city

2 Samuel 5:7 1 Chronicles 11:7

his own


the house

6:1-38 7:13-15 2 Chronicles 2:1-4 Ezra 5:11

the wall


Only the people sacrificed in high places, because there was no house built unto the name of the LORD, until those days.

the people

It was not right to offer sacrifices in any place but where the tabernacle and ark were; and wherever they were, whether on a high place or a plain, sacrifices might be lawfully offered, previously to building of the temple. The tabernacle was now at Gibeon, (2 Ch 1:3,) which was therefore called the great high place; whither we find Solomon, without censure, repaired to sacrifice.

22:43 Leviticus 17:3-6 26:30 Deuteronomy 12:2-5 2 Chronicles 33:17

was no

5:3 1 Chronicles 17:4-6 28:3-6 Acts 7:47-49

And Solomon loved the LORD, walking in the statutes of David his father: only he sacrificed and burnt incense in high places.


Deuteronomy 6:5 10:12 30:6,16,20 2 Samuel 12:24,25 Psalms 31:23 Matthew 22:37 Mark 12:29,30 Romans 8:28 1 Corinthians 8:3 James 1:12 2:5 1 John 4:19,20 5:2,3


6,14 2:3,4 11:34 15:3 1 Chronicles 28:8,9 2 Chronicles 17:3-5 John 14:15,21

only he

15:14 22:43 2 Kings 12:3 14:4 15:4,35 18:4,22

And the king went to Gibeon to sacrifice there; for that was the great high place: a thousand burnt offerings did Solomon offer upon that altar.


9:2 Joshua 9:3 10:2 1 Chronicles 16:39 21:29 2 Chronicles 1:3,7-12

a thousand

8:63 2 Chronicles 1:6 7:5 29:32-35 30:24 Isaiah 40:16 Micah 6:6,7

In Gibeon the LORD appeared to Solomon in a dream by night: and God said, Ask what I shall give thee.

the Lord


in a dream

Genesis 28:12,13 Numbers 12:6 Job 33:14,15 Matthew 1:20 2:13,19

Ask what

2 Chronicles 1:7-12 Matthew 7:7,8 Mark 10:36,38-51 11:24 John 14:13,14 15:16 James 1:5,6 1 John 5:14,15

And Solomon said, Thou hast shewed unto thy servant David my father great mercy, according as he walked before thee in truth, and in righteousness, and in uprightness of heart with thee; and thou hast kept for him this great kindness, that thou hast given him a son to sit on his throne, as it is this day.

thy servant

Numbers 12:7 2 Samuel 7:5


2 Samuel 7:8-12 12:7,8 22:47-51 1 Chronicles 29:12-14 Psalms 78:70-72


or, bounty.

Psalms 13:6 116:7 119:17 2 Corinthians 9:5,11


2:4 9:4 15:5 2 Kings 20:3 Psalms 15:2 18:20-24



And now, O LORD my God, thou hast made thy servant king instead of David my father: and I am but a little child: I know not how to go out or come in.

thou hast

Daniel 2:21 4:25,32 5:18,21

a little

1 Chronicles 29:1 Job 32:6-8 Ecclesiastes 10:16 Jeremiah 1:6 Matthew 18:3,4

to go

Numbers 27:17 Deuteronomy 31:2 1 Samuel 18:16 2 Samuel 5:2 Psalms 121:8 John 10:3,4,9

And thy servant is in the midst of thy people which thou hast chosen, a great people, that cannot be numbered nor counted for multitude.

thy people

Exodus 19:5,6 Deuteronomy 7:6-8 1 Samuel 12:22 Psalms 78:71


Genesis 13:16 15:5 22:17 1 Chronicles 21:2,5,6 27:23,24

Give therefore thy servant an understanding heart to judge thy people, that I may discern between good and bad: for who is able to judge this thy so great a people?

Give therefore

1 Chronicles 22:12 29:19 2 Chronicles 1:10 Psalms 119:34,73,144 Proverbs 2:3-9 3:13-18 Proverbs 16:16 James 1:5 3:17


Heb. hearing.

Proverbs 20:12

to judge

28 Psalms 72:1,2 Proverbs 14:8 Ecclesiastes 7:11,19 9:15-18 John 5:30


2 Samuel 14:17 Isaiah 11:2-4 1 Corinthians 2:14,15 Ephesians 5:17 Philippians 1:10 *Gr:; Hebrews 5:14

who is able

Exodus 3:11,12 4:10-13 Jeremiah 1:6 Matthew 3:11,14 2 Corinthians 2:16 3:5

And the speech pleased the Lord, that Solomon had asked this thing.


Proverbs 15:8

And God said unto him, Because thou hast asked this thing, and hast not asked for thyself long life; neither hast asked riches for thyself, nor hast asked the life of thine enemies; but hast asked for thyself understanding to discern judgment;

hast not

Psalms 4:6 Proverbs 16:31 Matthew 20:21,22 Romans 8:26 James 4:2,3

long life

Heb. many days. discern. Heb. hear.

9 *marg:

Behold, I have done according to thy words: lo, I have given thee a wise and an understanding heart; so that there was none like thee before thee, neither after thee shall any arise like unto thee.

I have done

Psalms 10:17 Isaiah 65:24 Romans 8:26,27 1 John 5:14,15

I have given

28 2:6,9 4:29-34 5:12 10:3-8,23,24 2 Chronicles 1:11,12 2:12 9:5-8 Ecclesiastes 1:13,16 Luke 21:15


Matthew 12:42 Colossians 2:3

And I have also given thee that which thou hast not asked, both riches, and honour: so that there shall not be any among the kings like unto thee all thy days.

And I

Psalms 84:11,12 Matthew 6:33 Romans 8:32 1 Corinthians 3:22,23 Ephesians 3:20


4:21-24 10:23-29 Proverbs 3:16

shall not be

or, hath not been.

And if thou wilt walk in my ways, to keep my statutes and my commandments, as thy father David did walk, then I will lengthen thy days.

if thou

2:3,4 1 Chronicles 22:12,13 28:9 2 Chronicles 7:17-19 Psalms 132:12 Zechariah 3:7

as thy

3 9:4,5 15:5 2 Chronicles 17:3,4 29:2 34:2 Acts 13:22

I will lengthen

Deuteronomy 5:16 25:15 Psalms 21:4 91:16 Proverbs 3:2,16 1 Timothy 4:8

And Solomon awoke; and, behold, it was a dream. And he came to Jerusalem, and stood before the ark of the covenant of the LORD, and offered up burnt offerings, and offered peace offerings, and made a feast to all his servants.


Genesis 41:7 Jeremiah 31:26


2 Samuel 6:17 1 Chronicles 16:1,2

peace offerings

8:63,65 Leviticus 3:1-17 7:11-19 2 Samuel 6:18,19 2 Chronicles 7:5,7-10 30:22-26

a feast

Genesis 31:54 40:20 Esther 1:3 Daniel 5:1 Mark 6:21

Then came there two women, that were harlots, unto the king, and stood before him.

two women

Leviticus 19:29 Deuteronomy 23:17 Joshua 2:1


The word zanoth, rendered harlots, is here translated by the Targumist, the best judge in this case, pundekon, "tavern-keepers:" see on Jos 2:1.

Judges 11:1 Had these women been harlots, it is not likely that they would have dared to appear before Solomon; nor is it likely that such persons would have been permitted in the reign of David. Their husbands might at this time have been following their necessary occupations in distant parts.


Exodus 18:13,16 Numbers 27:2

And the one woman said, O my lord, I and this woman dwell in one house; and I was delivered of a child with her in the house.

O my lord

Genesis 43:20 Romans 13:7

And she arose at midnight, and took my son from beside me, while thine handmaid slept, and laid it in her bosom, and laid her dead child in my bosom.


Job 24:13-17 Psalms 139:11 Matthew 13:25 John 3:20


Verse 21

And when I rose in the morning to give my child suck, behold, it was dead: but when I had considered it in the morning, behold, it was not my son, which I did bear.


Genesis 21:7 1 Samuel 1:23 Lamentations 4:3,4

And the other woman said, Nay; but the living is my son, and the dead is thy son. And this said, No; but the dead is thy son, and the living is my son. Thus they spake before the king.



And the king said, Divide the living child in two, and give half to the one, and half to the other.


This was apparently a very strange decision; but Solomon saw that the only way to discover the real mother was by the affection and tenderness should would necessarily shew to her offspring. The plan was tried, and succeeded; and it was a proof of his sound judgment, penetration, and acquaintance with the human heart, or rather, of his extraordinary and supernatural wisdom. See ver. 28. The two following instances are in some faint manner to be compared to Solomon's decision, inasmuch as they also work upon the human sympathies. Suetonius, in his Life of the emperor Claudian, tells us, that this emperor discovered a woman to be the real mother of a young man, whom she refused to acknowledge, by commanding her to marry him, the proofs being doubtful on both sides; for, rather than commit incest, she confessed the truth. Diodorus Siculus also informs us, that Ariopharnes, king of Thrace, being appointed to decided between three young men, each of whom professed to be the son of the deceased king of the Cimmerians, and claimed the succession, discovered the real son by ordering each to shoot an arrow into the dead body of the king: two of them did this without hesitation; but the real son of the deceased monarch refused.

Proverbs 25:8

Then spake the woman whose the living child was unto the king, for her bowels yearned upon her son, and she said, O my lord, give her the living child, and in no wise slay it. But the other said, Let it be neither mine nor thine, but divide it.

her bowels

Genesis 43:30 Isaiah 49:15 Jeremiah 31:20 Hosea 11:8 Philippians 1:8 2:1 1 John 3:17


Heb. were hot.

Psalms 39:3

give her

Romans 1:31 2 Timothy 3:3

And all Israel heard of the judgment which the king had judged; and they feared the king: for they saw that the wisdom of God was in him, to do judgment.


Exodus 14:31 Joshua 4:14 1 Samuel 12:18 1 Chronicles 29:24 Proverbs 24:21

the wisdom

9-12 Ezra 7:25 Ecclesiastes 7:19 Daniel 2:21,47 5:11 1 Corinthians 1:24,30 Colossians 2:3

in him

Heb. in the midst of him. to do.

Psalms 72:2,4