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Treasury of Scripture Knowledge: 1 Samuel 20

Chapter 20

And David fled from Naioth in Ramah, and came and said before Jonathan, What have I done? what is mine iniquity? and what is my sin before thy father, that he seeketh my life?


19:19-24 23:26-28 Psalms 124:6-8 2 Peter 2:9

What have

12:3 24:11,17 Psalms 7:3-5 18:20-24 2 Corinthians 1:12 1 John 3:21

And he said unto him, God forbid; thou shalt not die: behold, my father will do nothing either great or small, but that he will shew it me: and why should my father hide this thing from me? it is not so.

God forbid

14:45 Genesis 44:7 Joshua 22:29 24:16 Luke 20:16

shew it me

Heb. uncover mine ear.

12 9:15 *marg:; Psalms 40:6 Isaiah 50:5 John 15:15 17:8

And David sware moreover, and said, Thy father certainly knoweth that I have found grace in thine eyes; and he saith, Let not Jonathan know this, lest he be grieved: but truly as the LORD liveth, and as thy soul liveth, there is but a step between me and death.


Deuteronomy 6:13 Jeremiah 4:2 Hebrews 6:16

but truly

25:26 27:1 2 Samuel 15:21 2 Kings 2:2,4,6

as thy soul

1:26 17:55 Jeremiah 38:16

but a step

27:1 Deuteronomy 28:66 Psalms 116:3 1 Corinthians 15:30,31 2 Corinthians 1:9,10

Then said Jonathan unto David, Whatsoever thy soul desireth, I will even do it for thee.

Whatsoever, etc

or, Say what is thy mind, and I will do, etc.


Heb. speaketh, or thinketh.

And David said unto Jonathan, Behold, to morrow is the new moon, and I should not fail to sit with the king at meat: but let me go, that I may hide myself in the field unto the third day at even.

the new moon

The months of the Hebrews were lunar months, and they reckoned from one new moon to another: and, as their feasts, particularly the passover, were reckoned according to this, they were very scrupulous in observing the first appearance of each new moon. On these new moons, they offered sacrifices, and feasted together: but the gathering together of all the families of a tribe on such occasions seems to have taken place only once in the year.

6 Numbers 10:10 28:11 2 Kings 4:23 Psalms 81:3 Colossians 2:16

that I may

19 19:2 Psalms 55:12 Proverbs 22:3 John 8:59 Acts 17:14

If thy father at all miss me, then say, David earnestly asked leave of me that he might run to Bethlehem his city: for there is a yearly sacrifice there for all the family.


17:58 John 7:42


or, feast.

9:12 16:2-5

If he say thus, It is well; thy servant shall have peace: but if he be very wroth, then be sure that evil is determined by him.

It is well

Deuteronomy 1:23 2 Samuel 17:4


9 25:17 Esther 7:7

Therefore thou shalt deal kindly with thy servant; for thou hast brought thy servant into a covenant of the LORD with thee: notwithstanding, if there be in me iniquity, slay me thyself; for why shouldest thou bring me to thy father?

deal kindly

Genesis 24:49 47:29 Joshua 2:14 Ruth 1:8 Proverbs 3:3

thou hast

16 18:3 23:18

if there be

Joshua 22:22 2 Samuel 14:32 Psalms 7:4,5 Acts 25:11

why shouldest

1 Chronicles 12:17 Psalms 116:11

And Jonathan said, Far be it from thee: for if I knew certainly that evil were determined by my father to come upon thee, then would not I tell it thee?

then would

38,42 19:2

Then said David to Jonathan, Who shall tell me? or what if thy father answer thee roughly?

answer thee

30-34 25:10,14,17 Genesis 42:7,30 1 Kings 12:13 Proverbs 18:23

And Jonathan said unto David, O LORD God of Israel, when I have sounded my father about to morrow any time, or the third day, and, behold, if there be good toward David, and I then send not unto thee, and shew it thee;

O Lord

This verse is evidently deficient. The LXX. have [kyrios ho Theos Israel oiden] "The Lord God of Israel doth know;" the Syraic and Arabic, "The Lord God of Israel is witness;" either of which makes good sense. But two of Dr. Kennicott's MSS. supply the word chai, "liveth;" and the text reads thus: "As the Lord God of Israel liveth, when I have sounded my father,--if there be good unto David, and I then send not unto thee," etc.; which is a still better sense.

Joshua 22:22 Job 31:4 Psalms 17:3 139:1-4


Heb. searched.

Proverbs 20:5 25:2,3

shew it thee

Heb. uncover thine ear.

The LORD do so and much more to Jonathan: but if it please my father to do thee evil, then I will shew it thee, and send thee away, that thou mayest go in peace: and the LORD be with thee, as he hath been with my father.

The Lord do

3:17 25:22 Ruth 1:17 2 Samuel 3:35 19:13 1 Kings 19:2 20:10

the Lord be

17:37 Joshua 1:5 1 Chronicles 22:11,16 Matthew 28:20 Philippians 4:9

he hath been with my father

10:7 11:6-13 14:47 2 Samuel 7:15

And thou shalt not only while yet I live shew me the kindness of the LORD, that I die not:

the kindness

2 Samuel 9:3 Ephesians 5:1,2

But also thou shalt not cut off thy kindness from my house for ever: no, not when the LORD hath cut off the enemies of David every one from the face of the earth.

thou shalt

24:21 2 Samuel 9:1-7 21:7

So Jonathan made a covenant with the house of David, saying, Let the LORD even require it at the hand of David's enemies.


Heb. cut.

18:3 Genesis 15:18

Let the Lord

25:22 31:2 2 Samuel 4:7,8 21:8

And Jonathan caused David to swear again, because he loved him: for he loved him as he loved his own soul.

because he loved him

or, by his love toward him. for he loved.

18:1,3 Deuteronomy 13:6 2 Samuel 1:26 Proverbs 18:24

Then Jonathan said to David, To morrow is the new moon: and thou shalt be missed, because thy seat will be empty.

new moon

and thou shalt

Among the forms of salutation and compliment used in Persia, one was, "according to my mode of notation in italics, J· i sh·ma khali bud pish y·r·n, signifying, Thy place or seat was empty among thy friends. This phrase, or the greater part of it, was frequently addressed to myself when coming into a circle of Persian acquaintances, after an absence of several days or weeks. It reminded me of a passage in the First book of Samuel, (ch. 20:18.) And thou shalt be missed, because thy seat will be empty. And again, David's place was empty." Sir W. Ouseley's Travels, vol i. preface, p.16.


Heb. missed.

And when thou hast stayed three days, then thou shalt go down quickly, and come to the place where thou didst hide thyself when the business was in hand, and shalt remain by the stone Ezel.


or, diligently. Heb. greatly. hide thyself.

5 19:2

when the business

Heb. in the day of the business. Ezel. or, that sheweth the way.

And, behold, I will send a lad, saying, Go, find out the arrows. If I expressly say unto the lad, Behold, the arrows are on this side of thee, take them; then come thou: for there is peace to thee, and no hurt; as the LORD liveth.


Heb. not any thing. as the.

Jeremiah 4:2 5:2 12:16 Amos 8:14

And as touching the matter which thou and I have spoken of, behold, the LORD be between thee and me for ever.

the matter


the Lord

42 Genesis 16:5 31:50

So David hid himself in the field: and when the new moon was come, the king sat him down to eat meat.

the king

Psalms 50:16-21 Proverbs 4:17 15:17 17:1 21:3,27 Isaiah 1:11-15 Zechariah 7:6 John 18:28

And the king sat upon his seat, as at other times, even upon a seat by the wall: and Jonathan arose, and Abner sat by Saul's side, and David's place was empty.

as at other times

Judges 16:20

Nevertheless Saul spake not any thing that day: for he thought, Something hath befallen him, he is not clean; surely he is not clean.

he is not clean

Leviticus 7:21 11:24,27,31,40 15:5,16,17,19-21 Numbers 19:16

And it came to pass on the morrow, which was the second day of the month, that David's place was empty: and Saul said unto Jonathan his son, Wherefore cometh not the son of Jesse to meat, neither yesterday, nor to day?


18:11 19:9,10,15

the son

22:7-9,13,14 25:10 Isaiah 11:1,2 Matthew 13:55 1 Peter 2:4

And he said, Let me go, I pray thee; for our family hath a sacrifice in the city; and my brother, he hath commanded me to be there: and now, if I have found favour in thine eyes, let me get away, I pray thee, and see my brethren. Therefore he cometh not unto the king's table.

my brother


Then Saul's anger was kindled against Jonathan, and he said unto him, Thou son of the perverse rebellious woman, do not I know that thou hast chosen the son of Jesse to thine own confusion, and unto the confusion of thy mother's nakedness?


Job 5:2 Proverbs 14:29 19:12,19 21:24 25:28 27:3 James 1:19,20

Thou, etc

or, Thou perverse rebel. Heb. Son of perverse rebellion.

Proverbs 15:2 21:24 Matthew 5:22 Ephesians 4:31 6:4

and unto the

This reflection on the mother of Jonathan, by the passionate monarch, reflects more dishonour on himself than on his brave and noble minded son. Mungo Park gives an instance of the prevalence of the same principles in Africa; for he says, "Maternal affection is every where conspicuous among the Africans, and creates a correspondent return of tenderness in the child. 'Strike me,' said my attendant, 'but do not curse my mother.' I found the same sentiment to prevail universally in all parts of Africa." King Saul, unable to villify Jonathan to his own satisfaction by personal reproaches, outstepped the ordinary abuse of his day, and proceeded to that which was designed to produce unusual vexation, and vented the bitterness of his mind by maligning the character of his own wife and Jonathan's mother.

For as long as the son of Jesse liveth upon the ground, thou shalt not be established, nor thy kingdom. Wherefore now send and fetch him unto me, for he shall surely die.


8 19:6,11-15

shall surely die

Heb. is the son of death.

26:16 2 Samuel 19:28 Psalms 79:11 *marg:

And Jonathan answered Saul his father, and said unto him, Wherefore shall he be slain? what hath he done?


19:5 Proverbs 24:11,12 31:8,9 John 7:51

what hath

Matthew 27:23 Luke 23:22


18:11 19:10,11 Proverbs 22:24 Ecclesiastes 9:3 Jeremiah 17:9


7 Ecclesiastes 7:9

So Jonathan arose from the table in fierce anger, and did eat no meat the second day of the month: for he was grieved for David, because his father had done him shame.

in fierce

Ecclesiastes 7:20 Ephesians 4:26

he was grieved

Mark 3:5

And it came to pass in the morning, that Jonathan went out into the field at the time appointed with David, and a little lad with him.

at the time

19 2 Samuel 20:5

And he said unto his lad, Run, find out now the arrows which I shoot. And as the lad ran, he shot an arrow beyond him.



beyond him

Heb. to pass over him.


And Jonathan cried after the lad, Make speed, haste, stay not. And Jonathan's lad gathered up the arrows, and came to his master.

Psalms 55:6-9 Proverbs 6:4,5 Matthew 24:16-18 Mark 13:14-16 Luke 17:31,32

And Jonathan gave his artillery unto his lad, and said unto him, Go, carry them to the city.


Heb. instruments. Rather weapons, as the word kelim also denotes; and here means the bow, quiver, and arrows. This is probably the only place in our language in which the word artillery is not applied to cannon or ordinance, but simply to weapons of war.

his lad

Heb. the lad that was his.

And as soon as the lad was gone, David arose out of a place toward the south, and fell on his face to the ground, and bowed himself three times: and they kissed one another, and wept one with another, until David exceeded.

and fell

25:23 Genesis 43:28 2 Samuel 9:6

and they kissed

10:1 Genesis 29:11,13 45:15 2 Samuel 19:39 Acts 20:37

David exceeded

18:3 2 Samuel 1:26

And Jonathan said to David, Go in peace, forasmuch as we have sworn both of us in the name of the LORD, saying, The LORD be between me and thee, and between my seed and thy seed for ever. And he arose and departed: and Jonathan went into the city.

Go in peace

22 1:17 Numbers 6:26 Luke 7:50 Acts 16:36

forasmuch as

or, the Lord be witness of that which, etc.

And he arose

23:18 The separation of two such faithful friends was equally grievous to them both, but David's case was the more deplorable: for when Jonathan was returning to his family and friends, David was leaving all his comforts, even those of God's sanctuary, and therefore his grief exceeded Jonathan's; or, perhaps it was because his temper was more tender and his passions stronger. They referred each other to the covenant of friendship that was between them, both of them being comforted thereby in this very mournful separation:--"We have sworn both of us in the name of the Lord, for ourselves and our heirs, that we and they will be faithful and kind to each other from generation to generation."