And it came to pass, when he had made an end of speaking unto Saul, that the soul of Jonathan was knit with the soul of David, and Jonathan loved him as his own soul.
the soul of Jonathan
The modesty, piety, and courage of David were so congenial to the character of the amiable Jonathan, that they attracted his most cordial esteem and affection; so that the most intimate friendship subsisted between them from that time, and they loved each other with pure hearts fervently. Their friendship could not be affected by the common vicissitudes of life; and it exemplifies by fact what the ancients have written on the subject; [Ten philian isoteta einai, kai mian psychen ton philon heteron auton.] "Friendship is an entire sameness, and one soul: a friend is another self."
And Saul took him that day, and would let him go no more home to his father's house.
Then Jonathan and David made a covenant, because he loved him as his own soul.
made a covenant
And Jonathan stripped himself of the robe that was upon him, and gave it to David, and his garments, even to his sword, and to his bow, and to his girdle.
Presents of clothes or rich robes, as tokens of respect or friendship, are frequent in the East.
And David went out whithersoever Saul sent him, and behaved himself wisely: and Saul set him over the men of war, and he was accepted in the sight of all the people, and also in the sight of Saul's servants.
the men of war
And it came to pass as they came, when David was returned from the slaughter of the Philistine, that the women came out of all cities of Israel, singing and dancing, to meet king Saul, with tabrets, with joy, and with instruments of musick.
or, Philistines. the women.
instruments of music
Heb. three stringed instruments. The original shalishim, is rendered by the Vulgate sistris. The sistrum was an ancient Egyptian instrument made of brass, with three, and sometimes more brass rods across; which, being loose in their holes, made a jingling noise when shaken.
And the women answered one another as they played, and said, Saul hath slain his thousands, and David his ten thousands.
And Saul was very wroth, and the saying displeased him; and he said, They have ascribed unto David ten thousands, and to me they have ascribed but thousands: and what can he have more but the kingdom?
Heb. was evil in his eyes.
And Saul eyed David from that day and forward.
And it came to pass on the morrow, that the evil spirit from God came upon Saul, and he prophesied in the midst of the house: and David played with his hand, as at other times: and there was a javelin in Saul's hand.
the evil spirit
and he prophesied
Wyyithnabbai, rather, "and he pretended to prophesy; for the verb is in HithpaÎl, the signification of which conjugation is not only reflex action, but also affectation of the action: Jer 29:26, 27. The meaning seems to be, that Saul, influenced by the evil spirit, feigned to be prophesying, the better to conceal his murderous intentions, and to render David unsuspicious.
and there was
Wehachanith beyad Sh‰ool, rather, "and the javelin was in the hand of Saul;" for the javelin or spear was the emblem of regal authority; and kings had it always in their hand, as may be seen represented on ancient monuments. In ancient times, says Justin, kings used a spear instead of a sceptre.
And Saul cast the javelin; for he said, I will smite David even to the wall with it. And David avoided out of his presence twice.
cast the javelin
And Saul was afraid of David, because the LORD was with him, and was departed from Saul.
Therefore Saul removed him from him, and made him his captain over a thousand; and he went out and came in before the people.
he went out
16 Numbers 27:16,17 2 Samuel 5:2 Psalms 121:8 Saul was sensible that the Lord was departed from him; while he perceived, with evident sorrow of heart, that the Lord had given David peculiar wisdom, and that he was with him to prosper all his undertakings. This increased the disquietude of his malevolent mind, and his dread of David as a prevailing rival: he therefore removed him from his presence. This impolitic step, however, served the more to ingratiate David with the people, by affording him the opportunity of leading them forth to victory over their enemies.
And David behaved himself wisely in all his ways; and the LORD was with him.
Wherefore when Saul saw that he behaved himself very wisely, he was afraid of him.
But all Israel and Judah loved David, because he went out and came in before them.
And Saul said to David, Behold my elder daughter Merab, her will I give thee to wife: only be thou valiant for me, and fight the LORD'S battles. For Saul said, Let not mine hand be upon him, but let the hand of the Philistines be upon him.
her will I give
Heb. a son of valour. the Lord's.
Let not mine
And David said unto Saul, Who am I? and what is my life, or my father's family in Israel, that I should be son in law to the king?
Who am I
But it came to pass at the time when Merab Saul's daughter should have been given to David, that she was given unto Adriel the Meholathite to wife.
And Michal Saul's daughter loved David: and they told Saul, and the thing pleased him.
Heb. was right in his eyes.
And Saul said, I will give him her, that she may be a snare to him, and that the hand of the Philistines may be against him. Wherefore Saul said to David, Thou shalt this day be my son in law in the one of the twain.
And Saul commanded his servants, saying, Commune with David secretly, and say, Behold, the king hath delight in thee, and all his servants love thee: now therefore be the king's son in law.
And Saul's servants spake those words in the ears of David. And David said, Seemeth it to you a light thing to be a king's son in law, seeing that I am a poor man, and lightly esteemed?
a poor man
And the servants of Saul told him, saying, On this manner spake David.
On this manner
Heb. According to these words.
And Saul said, Thus shall ye say to David, The king desireth not any dowry, but an hundred foreskins of the Philistines, to be avenged of the king's enemies. But Saul thought to make David fall by the hand of the Philistines.
but an hundred
That is, Thou shalt slay one hundred Philistines, and thou shalt produce their foreskins as a proof, not only that thou hast killed one hundred men, but that these are of the uncircumcised Philistines.
to be avenged
And when his servants told David these words, it pleased David well to be the king's son in law: and the days were not expired.
Wherefore David arose and went, he and his men, and slew of the Philistines two hundred men; and David brought their foreskins, and they gave them in full tale to the king, that he might be the king's son in law. And Saul gave him Michal his daughter to wife.
two hundred men
The Septuagint has only [ ] one hundred men; and as Saul covenanted for a hundred, as David himself says, (2 Sa 3:14,) that he espoused Michal for a hundred, it is very probable that this is the true reading.
And Saul saw and knew that the LORD was with David, and that Michal Saul's daughter loved him.
And Saul was yet the more afraid of David; and Saul became David's enemy continually.
Then the princes of the Philistines went forth: and it came to pass, after they went forth, that David behaved himself more wisely than all the servants of Saul; so that his name was much set by.
Of this war we know no more than that David, whose military skill was greater, was more successful in it, than all the other officers of Saul.