These are the journeys of the children of Israel, which went forth out of the land of Egypt with their armies under the hand of Moses and Aaron.
with their armies
under the hand
And Moses wrote their goings out according to their journeys by the commandment of the LORD: and these are their journeys according to their goings out.
And they departed from Rameses in the first month, on the fifteenth day of the first month; on the morrow after the passover the children of Israel went out with an high hand in the sight of all the Egyptians.
in the first
with an high
For the Egyptians buried all their firstborn, which the LORD had smitten among them: upon their gods also the LORD executed judgments.
upon their gods
And the children of Israel removed from Rameses, and pitched in Succoth.
This appears to have been the capital of the land of Goshen, and the rendezvous of the Israelites. It is placed by Jerome in the extremity of Egypt, in the Arsenoitic nome.
And they departed from Succoth, and pitched in Etham, which is in the edge of the wilderness.
Supposed to be the SuchÊ mentioned by Pliny and the Scenas Mandrorum, in the Antonine Itinerary. The Editor of Calmet places it at Birket el Hadji, or "the Pilgrims' pool," a few miles east of Cairo.
This was evidently situated towards the north point of the Red sea. Calmet supposes it to be the same as Buthus or Butham, mentioned by Herodotus, who places it in Arabia, on the frontiers of Egypt.
And they removed from Etham, and turned again unto Pihahiroth, which is before Baalzephon: and they pitched before Migdol.
Calmet supposes this to be the Clysma of the Greeks, and the Kolzum of the Arabians. His learned Editor thinks the true situation of Baal-zephon was some miles more northerly than the present Suez.
And they departed from before Pihahiroth, and passed through the midst of the sea into the wilderness, and went three days' journey in the wilderness of Etham, and pitched in Marah.
Called Shur in Exodus; but Dr. Shaw says that Shur is a particular district of the wilderness of Etham.
And they removed from Marah, and came unto Elim: and in Elim were twelve fountains of water, and threescore and ten palm trees; and they pitched there.
And they removed from Elim, and encamped by the Red sea.
And they removed from Alush, and encamped at Rephidim, where was no water for the people to drink.
And they departed from Rephidim, and pitched in the wilderness of Sinai.
And they removed from the desert of Sinai, and pitched at Kibrothhattaavah.
That is, the graves of lust.
And they departed from Kibrothhattaavah, and encamped at Hazeroth.
And they departed from Hazeroth, and pitched in Rithmah.
Rithmah was a place in the wilderness of Paran, near Kadesh Barnea; probably so called from the great number of juniper trees, as the name signifies, growing in that district.
And they departed from Rithmah, and pitched at Rimmonparez.
Probably the same as Rimmon, a city of Judah and Simeon, Jos 15:32, 19:7.
And they removed from Libnah, and pitched at Rissah.
Rissah. This is supposed, apparently with good reason, by the Editor of Calmet, to be the same with the present El Arish, a village three quarters of a league from the Mediterranean, and the last stage in Syria, on the road to Egypt.
And they removed from mount Shapher, and encamped in Haradah.
The Editor of Calmet, who supposes the Israelites to be now in the regular track from Gaza to Egypt, is of opinion that mount Shapher is the ancient name of mount Cassius, Catjeh, or CatiÈ, a huge mole of sand, almost surrounded by the Mediterranean, on which was built a temple to Jupiter Cassius. Thevenot states, that at the village of CatiÈ there is a well of water unpleasant for drinking; but two miles off, another whose water is good after standing a little.
And they departed from Hashmonah, and encamped at Moseroth.
This is supposed by Mr. C. Taylor, to be Ain el Mousa, (probably a corruption of Moseroth) or fountains of Moses, at the head of the western gulf of the Red sea, about seven or eight miles east from Suez, seven or eight days' journey from Gaza, and five or six from Sinai.
And they departed from Moseroth, and pitched in Benejaakan.
And they removed from Benejaakan, and encamped at Horhagidgad.
And they went from Horhagidgad, and pitched in Jotbathah.
Mr. Taylor, who imagines the Israelites to be now in the track of the Mecca pilgrims, supposes Jotbathah, which is described as "a land of brooks of water," to be Callah Nahar, a torrent, said to be good water by Dr. Shaw.
And they removed from Jotbathah, and encamped at Ebronah.
Probably at Abiah Ailana, or Sat el Acaba, stations nearer Accaba.
And they departed from Ebronah, and encamped at Eziongaber.
Dr. Shaw places this port on the western shore of the Elanitic gulf of the Red Sea. He says it is now called Meenah el Dsahab, or the golden port, by the Arabs; because it was from this place that Solomon sent his ships to Ophir. He supposes it to be about sixty miles from Sinai; and it is probable that it was near the present Accaba, i.e., the end (of the sea).
And they removed from Eziongaber, and pitched in the wilderness of Zin, which is Kadesh.
the wilderness of Zin
And they removed from Kadesh, and pitched in mount Hor, in the edge of the land of Edom.
And Aaron the priest went up into mount Hor at the commandment of the LORD, and died there, in the fortieth year after the children of Israel were come out of the land of Egypt, in the first day of the fifth month.
And king Arad the Canaanite, which dwelt in the south in the land of Canaan, heard of the coming of the children of Israel.
And they departed from mount Hor, and pitched in Zalmonah.
And they departed from Zalmonah, and pitched in Punon.
Called Phainon by Eusebius, who places it between Petra and Zoar. Perhaps it is the present Tafyle, mentioned by Burckhardt.
And they departed from Punon, and pitched in Oboth.
pitched in Oboth
And they departed from Oboth, and pitched in Ijeabarim, in the border of Moab.
or, heaps of Abarim.
And they removed from Dibongad, and encamped in Almondiblathaim.
And they removed from Almondiblathaim, and pitched in the mountains of Abarim, before Nebo.
These mountains were a ridge of rugged hills east of Jordan, and north and west of the Arnon. Nebo, Pisgah, and Peor, were but different names of the hills of which they were composed. Eusebius and Jerome inform us, that some part of them, as one went up to Heshbon, retained the old name of Abarim in their time; and that the part called Nebo was opposite Jericho, not far from the Jordan, six miles west from Heshbon, and seven east from Livias. Dr. Shaw describes them as "an exceeding high ridge of desolate mountains, no otherwise diversified than by a succession of naked rocks and precipices; rendered in some places the more frightful by a multiplicity of torrents, which fall on each side of them. This ridge is continued all along the eastern coast of the Dead sea." Mount Nebo is now called Djebel Attarous; and is described as a barren mountain, the highest point in the neighbourhood, with an uneven plain on the top. Burckhardt, Travels, pp. 369, 370.
And they departed from the mountains of Abarim, and pitched in the plains of Moab by Jordan near Jericho.
in the plains
And they pitched by Jordan, from Bethjesimoth even unto Abelshittim in the plains of Moab.
Probably the place called Bethsimath by Eusebius, east of Jordan, and about ten miles south of Jericho.
or, the plains of Shittim. This place, according to Josephus, (Ant. 1. iv. c. 7, 1. Bell. 1. v. c. 3,) who calls it Abela, was 60 furlongs east of Jordan.
And the LORD spake unto Moses in the plains of Moab by Jordan near Jericho, saying,
Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them, When ye are passed over Jordan into the land of Canaan;
Then ye shall drive out all the inhabitants of the land from before you, and destroy all their pictures, and destroy all their molten images, and quite pluck down all their high places:
And ye shall dispossess the inhabitants of the land, and dwell therein: for I have given you the land to possess it.
And ye shall divide the land by lot for an inheritance among your families: and to the more ye shall give the more inheritance, and to the fewer ye shall give the less inheritance: every man's inheritance shall be in the place where his lot falleth; according to the tribes of your fathers ye shall inherit.
ye shall divide
give the more inheritance
Heb. multiply his inheritance.
give the less inheritance
Heb. diminish his inheritance in the place.
But if ye will not drive out the inhabitants of the land from before you; then it shall come to pass, that those which ye let remain of them shall be pricks in your eyes, and thorns in your sides, and shall vex you in the land wherein ye dwell.
shall be pricks
Moreover it shall come to pass, that I shall do unto you, as I thought to do unto them.