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Treasury of Scripture Knowledge: Exodus 12

Chapter 12

This month shall be unto you the beginning of months: it shall be the first month of the year to you.

A. M. 2513. B.C. 1491. An. Exod. Isr. 1. Abib or Nisan

13:4 23:15 34:18 Leviticus 23:5 Numbers 28:16 Deuteronomy 16:1 Esther 3:7

Speak ye unto all the congregation of Israel, saying, In the tenth day of this month they shall take to them every man a lamb, according to the house of their fathers, a lamb for an house:

Speak ye

4:30 6:6 14:15 20:19 Leviticus 1:2

in the tenth

6 John 12:1,12

take to

Genesis 4:4 22:8 1 Samuel 7:9 John 1:29,36 1 Corinthians 5:7 Revelation 5:6-13 7:9-14 13:8


or, kid. The word seh means the young of both sheep and goats, and may be indifferently rendered either lamb or kid. It is evident from ver. 5 that the Hebrews might take either; but they generally preferred a lamb, from being of a more gentle nature.

Leviticus 5:6 Numbers 15:11 2 Chronicles 35:7

an house

The Israelites were divided into twelve tribes, these tribes into families, the families into houses, and the houses into particular persons.

Numbers 1:1-54 Joshua 7:14

Your lamb shall be without blemish, a male of the first year: ye shall take it out from the sheep, or from the goats:

be without

Leviticus 1:3,10 22:19-24 Deuteronomy 17:1 Malachi 1:7,8,14 Hebrews 7:26 9:13,14 1 Peter 1:18,19

a male of the first year

Heb. son of a year.

Leviticus 23:12 1 Samuel 13:1 *marg:

And ye shall keep it up until the fourteenth day of the same month: and the whole assembly of the congregation of Israel shall kill it in the evening.


Leviticus 23:5 Numbers 9:3 28:16,18 Deuteronomy 16:1-6 2 Chronicles 30:15 Ezekiel 45:21

the whole

2 Chronicles 30:15-18 Isaiah 53:6 Matthew 27:20,25 Mark 15:1,8,11,25,33,34 Luke 23:1,18 Acts 2:23 3:14 4:27

in the evening

Heb. between the two evenings. The Jews divided the day into morning and evening: till the sun passed the meridian, all was morning or forenoon; after that, all was evening or afternoon. Their first evening began just after twelve o'clock, and continued till sunset; their second evening began at sunset, and continued till night, i.e., during the whole time of twilight; between twelve o'clock, therefore, and the termination of twilight, the passover was to be offered. See Parallel Passages.

16:12 Matthew 27:46-50

And they shall take of the blood, and strike it on the two side posts and on the upper door post of the houses, wherein they shall eat it.

22,23 Ephesians 1:7 Hebrews 9:13,14,22 10:14,29 11:28 1 Peter 1:2

And they shall eat the flesh in that night, roast with fire, and unleavened bread; and with bitter herbs they shall eat it.

eat the

Matthew 26:26 John 6:52-57


Deuteronomy 16:7 Psalms 22:14 Isaiah 53:10


13:3,7 34:25 Numbers 9:11 Deuteronomy 16:3 Amos 4:5 Matthew 16:12 1 Corinthians 5:6-8 Galatians 5:9

with bitter

1:14 Numbers 9:11 Zechariah 12:10 1 Thessalonians 1:6

Eat not of it raw, nor sodden at all with water, but roast with fire; his head with his legs, and with the purtenance thereof.

but roast with fire

8 Deuteronomy 16:7 Lamentations 1:13

And ye shall let nothing of it remain until the morning; and that which remaineth of it until the morning ye shall burn with fire.

23:18 29:34 34:25 Leviticus 7:15-17 22:30 Deuteronomy 16:4,5

And thus shall ye eat it; with your loins girded, your shoes on your feet, and your staff in your hand; and ye shall eat it in haste: it is the LORD'S passover.


Matthew 26:19,20 Luke 12:35 Ephesians 6:15 1 Peter 1:13


Luke 7:38 15:22 Ephesians 6:15

it is the

27 Leviticus 23:5 Numbers 28:16 Deuteronomy 16:2-6 1 Corinthians 5:7

For I will pass through the land of Egypt this night, and will smite all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, both man and beast; and against all the gods of Egypt I will execute judgment: I am the LORD.


23 11:4,5 Amos 5:17

will smite

29,30 11:4-6


Numbers 33:4 1 Samuel 5:3 6:5 1 Chronicles 14:12 Isaiah 19:1 Jeremiah 43:13 Zephaniah 2:11


or, princes.

21:6 22:28 Psalms 82:1,6 John 10:34,35

I am the Lord

6:2 Isaiah 43:11-15 Ezekiel 12:16

And the blood shall be to you for a token upon the houses where ye are: and when I see the blood, I will pass over you, and the plague shall not be upon you to destroy you, when I smite the land of Egypt.

the blood

23 Genesis 17:11 Joshua 2:12 Hebrews 11:28

and when

1 Thessalonians 1:10 1 John 1:7

to destroy you

Heb. for a destruction.

And this day shall be unto you for a memorial; and ye shall keep it a feast to the LORD throughout your generations; ye shall keep it a feast by an ordinance for ever.


13:9 Numbers 16:40 Joshua 4:7 Psalms 111:4 135:13 Zechariah 6:14 Matthew 26:13 Luke 22:19 1 Corinthians 11:23-26

a feast

5:1 Deuteronomy 16:11 Nehemiah 8:9-12

by an ordinance

17,24,43 13:10 Leviticus 23:4,5 Numbers 10:8 18:8 Deuteronomy 16:1 1 Samuel 30:25 2 Kings 23:21 Ezekiel 46:14 1 Corinthians 5:7,8

Seven days shall ye eat unleavened bread; even the first day ye shall put away leaven out of your houses: for whosoever eateth leavened bread from the first day until the seventh day, that soul shall be cut off from Israel.


8 13:6,7-10 23:15 34:18,25 Leviticus 23:5-8 Numbers 28:17 Deuteronomy 16:3,5,8 Matthew 16:12 Luke 12:1 Acts 12:3

that soul

19,20 31:14 Genesis 17:14 Leviticus 17:10,14 Numbers 9:13 Malachi 2:12 Galatians 5:12

And in the first day there shall be an holy convocation, and in the seventh day there shall be an holy convocation to you; no manner of work shall be done in them, save that which every man must eat, that only may be done of you.

first day

Leviticus 23:2,3,7,8,21,24,25,27,35 Numbers 28:18,25 29:1,12

no manner

16:5,23,29 20:10 35:2,3 Jeremiah 17:21,22

man Heb


And ye shall observe the feast of unleavened bread; for in this selfsame day have I brought your armies out of the land of Egypt: therefore shall ye observe this day in your generations by an ordinance for ever.

in this selfsame

7:5 13:8 Numbers 20:16

an ordinance

Verse 18

In the first month, on the fourteenth day of the month at even, ye shall eat unleavened bread, until the one and twentieth day of the month at even.

1,15 Leviticus 23:5,6 Numbers 28:16

Seven days shall there be no leaven found in your houses: for whosoever eateth that which is leavened, even that soul shall be cut off from the congregation of Israel, whether he be a stranger, or born in the land.


23:15 34:18 Deuteronomy 16:3 1 Corinthians 5:7,8

even that

15 Numbers 9:13



Then Moses called for all the elders of Israel, and said unto them, Draw out and take you a lamb according to your families, and kill the passover.


3:16 17:5 19:7 Numbers 11:16

and take

3 Numbers 9:2-5 Joshua 5:10 2 Kings 23:21 2 Chronicles 30:15-17 35:5,6 Ezra 6:20 Matthew 26:17-19 Mark 14:12-16 Luke 22:7-13 1 Corinthians 10:4


or, kid.

3 *marg:

the passover

That is, the lamb which was called the paschal, or passover lamb; the animal sacrificed obtaining the name of the institution. St. Paul copies the expression in 1 Co 5:7.

And ye shall take a bunch of hyssop, and dip it in the blood that is in the bason, and strike the lintel and the two side posts with the blood that is in the bason; and none of you shall go out at the door of his house until the morning.

a bunch

Leviticus 14:6,7 Numbers 19:18 Psalms 51:7 Hebrews 9:1,14,19 11:28 12:24 1 Peter 1:2



and none

Matthew 26:30

For the LORD will pass through to smite the Egyptians; and when he seeth the blood upon the lintel, and on the two side posts, the LORD will pass over the door, and will not suffer the destroyer to come in unto your houses to smite you.

will pass through


and will not

2 Samuel 24:16 Isaiah 37:36 Ezekiel 9:4,6 1 Corinthians 10:10 Hebrews 11:28 12:24 Revelation 7:3 9:4

And ye shall observe this thing for an ordinance to thee and to thy sons for ever.

14 Genesis 17:8-10

And it shall come to pass, when ye be come to the land which the LORD will give you, according as he hath promised, that ye shall keep this service.


Deuteronomy 4:5 12:8,9 16:5-9 Joshua 5:10-12 Psalms 105:44,45



And it shall come to pass, when your children shall say unto you, What mean ye by this service?

your children

13:8,9,14,15,22 Deuteronomy 6:7 11:19 32:7 Joshua 4:6,7,21-24 Psalms 78:3-6 Psalms 145:4 Isaiah 38:19 Ephesians 6:4

That ye shall say, It is the sacrifice of the LORD'S passover, who passed over the houses of the children of Israel in Egypt, when he smote the Egyptians, and delivered our houses. And the people bowed the head and worshipped.

It is the sacrifice

11,23 34:25 Deuteronomy 16:2,5 1 Corinthians 5:7


4:31 34:8 1 Chronicles 29:20 2 Chronicles 20:18 29:30 Nehemiah 8:6

And the children of Israel went away, and did as the LORD had commanded Moses and Aaron, so did they.

Hebrews 11:28

And it came to pass, that at midnight the LORD smote all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, from the firstborn of Pharaoh that sat on his throne unto the firstborn of the captive that was in the dungeon; and all the firstborn of cattle.

at midnight

12 11:4 13:15 Job 34:20 1 Thessalonians 5:2,3

the Lord smote

The infliction of this judgment on the Egyptians was most equitable; because, after their nation had been preserved by one of the Israelitish family, they had, contrary to all right, and in defiance of original stipulation, enslaved the people to whom they had been so much indebted, had murdered their offspring, and made their bondage intolerable. See Bryant, p. 160.

Numbers 3:13 8:17 33:4 Psalms 78:51 105:36 135:8 136:10 Hebrews 11:28 Hebrews 12:23

the first-born of Pharaoh

4:23 11:5


Heb. house of the pit.

Isaiah 24:22 51:14 Jeremiah 38:6,13 Zechariah 9:11

And Pharaoh rose up in the night, he, and all his servants, and all the Egyptians; and there was a great cry in Egypt; for there was not a house where there was not one dead.

and there was a great cry

No people were more remarkable and frantic in their mournings than the Egyptians. When a relative died, every one left the house, and the women, with their hair loose, and their bosoms bare, ran wild about the street. The men also, with their apparel equally disordered, kept them company; all shrieking, howling, and beating themselves. What a scene of horror and distress must now have presented itself, when there was not a family in Egypt where there was not one dead!

11:6 Proverbs 21:13 Amos 5:17 Matthew 25:6 James 2:13

And he called for Moses and Aaron by night, and said, Rise up, and get you forth from among my people, both ye and the children of Israel; and go, serve the LORD, as ye have said.



Rise up

3:19,20 6:1 11:1,8 Psalms 105:38

the children


Also take your flocks and your herds, as ye have said, and be gone; and bless me also.

your flocks


bless me

8:28 9:28 Genesis 27:34,38

And the Egyptians were urgent upon the people, that they might send them out of the land in haste; for they said, We be all dead men.


11:1 Psalms 105:38

We be all

Genesis 20:3 Numbers 17:12,13

And the people took their dough before it was leavened, their kneadingtroughs being bound up in their clothes upon their shoulders.

kneading troughs

or, dough.

8:3 Probably like the kneading-troughs of the Arabs; comparatively small wooden bowls, which also serve them for dishes. Their being bound up in their clothes may mean no more than their being wrapped up in their {hykes,} or long, loose, garments. See Shaw's Travels, p. 224, 4to. edit.

And the children of Israel did according to the word of Moses; and they borrowed of the Egyptians jewels of silver, and jewels of gold, and raiment:

3:21,22 11:2,3 Genesis 15:14 Psalms 105:37

And the LORD gave the people favour in the sight of the Egyptians, so that they lent unto them such things as they required. And they spoiled the Egyptians.

the Lord

3:21 11:3 Genesis 39:21 Proverbs 16:7 Daniel 1:9 Acts 2:47 7:10

they spoiled

3:22 Genesis 15:14 Psalms 105:37

And the children of Israel journeyed from Rameses to Succoth, about six hundred thousand on foot that were men, beside children.

the children

Numbers 33:3,5


1:11 Genesis 47:11

six hundred

38:26 Genesis 12:2 15:5 46:3 Numbers 1:46 11:21

And a mixed multitude went up also with them; and flocks, and herds, even very much cattle.

And a mixed multitude

Heb. a great mixture.

Numbers 11:4 Zechariah 8:23

And they baked unleavened cakes of the dough which they brought forth out of Egypt, for it was not leavened; because they were thrust out of Egypt, and could not tarry, neither had they prepared for themselves any victual.


33 6:1 11:1

Now the sojourning of the children of Israel, who dwelt in Egypt, was four hundred and thirty years.


Acts 13:17 Hebrews 11:9

four hundred

Genesis 12:1-3 15:13 Acts 7:6 Galatians 3:16,17

And it came to pass at the end of the four hundred and thirty years, even the selfsame day it came to pass, that all the hosts of the LORD went out from the land of Egypt.


Psalms 102:13 Daniel 9:24 Habakkuk 2:3 John 7:8 Acts 1:7


51 7:4 Joshua 5:14

It is a night to be much observed unto the LORD for bringing them out from the land of Egypt: this is that night of the LORD to be observed of all the children of Israel in their generations.

a night to be much observed

Heb. a night of observations. observed.

14 Deuteronomy 16:1-6

And the LORD said unto Moses and Aaron, This is the ordinance of the passover: There shall no stranger eat thereof:

There shall

48 Leviticus 22:10 Numbers 9:14 Ephesians 2:12

But every man's servant that is bought for money, when thou hast circumcised him, then shall he eat thereof.


Genesis 17:12,13,23

A foreigner and an hired servant shall not eat thereof.

Leviticus 22:10 Ephesians 2:12

In one house shall it be eaten; thou shalt not carry forth ought of the flesh abroad out of the house; neither shall ye break a bone thereof.

one house

1 Corinthians 12:12 Ephesians 2:19-22


Numbers 9:12 John 19:33,36

All the congregation of Israel shall keep it.

All the

3,6 Numbers 9:13

keep it

Heb. do it.

And when a stranger shall sojourn with thee, and will keep the passover to the LORD, let all his males be circumcised, and then let him come near and keep it; and he shall be as one that is born in the land: for no uncircumcised person shall eat thereof.

a stranger

43 Numbers 9:14 15:15,16

let all

Genesis 17:12 Ezekiel 44:9 47:22

shall be

Galatians 3:28 Colossians 3:11

One law shall be to him that is homeborn, and unto the stranger that sojourneth among you.

Leviticus 24:22 Numbers 9:14 15:15,16,29 Galatians 3:28 Colossians 3:11

Thus did all the children of Israel; as the LORD commanded Moses and Aaron, so did they.

as the Lord

Deuteronomy 4:1,2 12:32 Matthew 7:24,25 28:20 John 2:5 13:17 15:14 Revelation 22:15

by their armies

41 6:26 7:4

And it came to pass the selfsame day, that the LORD did bring the children of Israel out of the land of Egypt by their armies.