Then Eliashib the high priest rose up with his brethren the priests, and they builded the sheep gate; they sanctified it, and set up the doors of it; even unto the tower of Meah they sanctified it, unto the tower of Hananeel.
the sheep gate
This gate is supposed to have immediately communicated with the temple, and to have been called the sheep gate, because the sheep intended for sacrifice passed through it. But, after all which learned men have written on this subject, which is but of little interest, we scarcely know any thing about these gates: what they were, why called by these names, or in what part of the wall they were situated, beyond what may be learned from the parallel passages.
And next unto him builded the men of Jericho. And next to them builded Zaccur the son of Imri.
next unto him
Heb. at his hand. the men.
But the fish gate did the sons of Hassenaah build, who also laid the beams thereof, and set up the doors thereof, the locks thereof, and the bars thereof.
the fish gate
And next unto them repaired Meremoth the son of Urijah, the son of Koz. And next unto them repaired Meshullam the son of Berechiah, the son of Meshezabeel. And next unto them repaired Zadok the son of Baana.
And next unto them the Tekoites repaired; but their nobles put not their necks to the work of their Lord.
Moreover the old gate repaired Jehoiada the son of Paseah, and Meshullam the son of Besodeiah; they laid the beams thereof, and set up the doors thereof, and the locks thereof, and the bars thereof.
And next unto them repaired Melatiah the Gibeonite, and Jadon the Meronothite, the men of Gibeon, and of Mizpah, unto the throne of the governor on this side the river.
That is, probably, the palace of the Persian governor, west of the Euphrates; the term throne being used to signify any royal abode: for Sir J. Chardin, describing a splendid tent erected by the king of Persia, says "that there was an inscription wrought upon the cornice of the anti-chamber, which gave it the appellation of the throne of the second Solomon." Sitting upon a throne has, however, sometimes been granted to governors.
Next unto him repaired Uzziel the son of Harhaiah, of the goldsmiths. Next unto him also repaired Hananiah the son of one of the apothecaries, and they fortified Jerusalem unto the broad wall.
of the apothecaries
or, left. the broad wall.
And next unto them repaired Rephaiah the son of Hur, the ruler of the half part of Jerusalem.
And next unto them repaired Jedaiah the son of Harumaph, even over against his house. And next unto him repaired Hattush the son of Hashabniah.
Malchijah the son of Harim, and Hashub the son of Pahathmoab, repaired the other piece, and the tower of the furnaces.
Heb. second measure. the tower.
And next unto him repaired Shallum the son of Halohesh, the ruler of the half part of Jerusalem, he and his daughters.
he and his daughters
The valley gate repaired Hanun, and the inhabitants of Zanoah; they built it, and set up the doors thereof, the locks thereof, and the bars thereof, and a thousand cubits on the wall unto the dung gate.
the valley gate
There were two towns of the name of Zanoah in the tribe of Judah: see the parallel passages.
But the dung gate repaired Malchiah the son of Rechab, the ruler of part of Bethhaccerem; he built it, and set up the doors thereof, the locks thereof, and the bars thereof.
the dung gate
Beth-haccerem was a town of Judah, situated on a mountain, between Jerusalem and Tekoa, according to Jerome on Jer. ch. 6. Dr. Pococke conjectures that the Mountain of the Franks, called also the Mount of Bethulia, from a village of that name near it, west-north-west of Tekoa, is the ancient Beth-haccerem; the position of which seems to agree with the citadel of Herodium, built by Herod, on a moderate-sized hill, sixty furlongs from Jerusalem.
But the gate of the fountain repaired Shallun the son of Colhozeh, the ruler of part of Mizpah; he built it, and covered it, and set up the doors thereof, the locks thereof, and the bars thereof, and the wall of the pool of Siloah by the king's garden, and unto the stairs that go down from the city of David.
Siloah was situated under the eastern wall of Jerusalem, between that city and the brook Kedron, and is described by Chateaubriand as lying at the foot of Mount Zion. Dr. Richardson represents the pool of Siloam as occurring higher up the valley of Jehoshaphat, towards the north, than the well of Nehemiah, a little beyond the village of Siloa, and nearly opposite the tombs of Jehoshaphat and Zechariah.
After him repaired Nehemiah the son of Azbuk, the ruler of the half part of Bethzur, unto the place over against the sepulchres of David, and to the pool that was made, and unto the house of the mighty.
After him repaired the Levites, Rehum the son of Bani. Next unto him repaired Hashabiah, the ruler of the half part of Keilah, in his part.
And next to him repaired Ezer the son of Jeshua, the ruler of Mizpah, another piece over against the going up to the armoury at the turning of the wall.
After him Baruch the son of Zabbai earnestly repaired the other piece, from the turning of the wall unto the door of the house of Eliashib the high priest.
or, Zaccai. earnestly.
After him repaired Meremoth the son of Urijah the son of Koz another piece, from the door of the house of Eliashib even to the end of the house of Eliashib.
And after him repaired the priests, the men of the plain.
the men of the plain
After him repaired Benjamin and Hashub over against their house. After him repaired Azariah the son of Maaseiah the son of Ananiah by his house.
After him repaired Binnui the son of Henadad another piece, from the house of Azariah unto the turning of the wall, even unto the corner.
That which had been left by Azariah, after he had repaired the wall by his own house. It is probable that some of the principal people were either obliged, or voluntarily offered, to repair those parts of the wall which were opposite, or adjacent, to their own houses. The names of those who repaired the walls are commemorated, because it was an undertaking of piety, virtue, and courage, to restore the holy city.
Palal the son of Uzai, over against the turning of the wall, and the tower which lieth out from the king's high house, that was by the court of the prison. After him Pedaiah the son of Parosh.
by the court
Moreover the Nethinims dwelt in Ophel, unto the place over against the water gate toward the east, and the tower that lieth out.
or, which dwelt in Ophel, repaired unto. Ophel. or, the tower.
The water gate is supposed to have been that by which the Nethinim brought in water for the use of the temple.
After them the Tekoites repaired another piece, over against the great tower that lieth out, even unto the wall of Ophel.
From above the horse gate repaired the priests, every one over against his house.
After them repaired Zadok the son of Immer over against his house. After him repaired also Shemaiah the son of Shechaniah, the keeper of the east gate.
the east gate
After him repaired Hananiah the son of Shelemiah, and Hanun the sixth son of Zalaph, another piece. After him repaired Meshullam the son of Berechiah over against his chamber.
After him repaired Malchiah the goldsmith's son unto the place of the Nethinims, and of the merchants, over against the gate Miphkad, and to the going up of the corner.
going up of the corner
And between the going up of the corner unto the sheep gate repaired the goldsmiths and the merchants.
the sheep gate
Thus the whole city was surrounded with a wall; for Eliashib began at the sheep gate.
The word tzeraphim may denote smiths, or refiners, or persons that worked in metals of any kind; but it is generally understood of those who worked in gold. From the remotest period of the history of the Jews, they had artists in all the elegant and ornamental trades; and it appears that goldsmiths, apothecaries, and merchants were formed into companies in the time of Nehemiah.