In the twelfth year of Ahaz king of Judah began Hoshea the son of Elah to reign in Samaria over Israel nine years.
A. M. 3274. B.C. 730. In the twelfth. In ch. 15:30, this is said to be "the twentieth year of Jotham," which Calmet thus reconciles: "Hosea conspired against Pekah, the 20th year of the reign of this prince, which was the 18th of Jotham, king of Judah. Two years after this, that is, the 4th of Ahaz and the 20th of Jotham, Hosea made himself master of a part of the kingdom, according to ch. 15:30. Finally, the 12th year of Ahaz, Hosea had peaceable possession of the whole kingdom, agreeably to ch. 17:1."
"After an interregnum, ch. 15:30; 18:9."
And he did that which was evil in the sight of the LORD, but not as the kings of Israel that were before him.
but not as the kings
Against him came up Shalmaneser king of Assyria; and Hoshea became his servant, and gave him presents.
This was the son and successor of Tiglath-pileser: he reigned 14 years, from A.M. 3276 to 3290.
king of Assyria.
Heb. rendered. presents. or, tribute.
And the king of Assyria found conspiracy in Hoshea: for he had sent messengers to So king of Egypt, and brought no present to the king of Assyria, as he had done year by year: therefore the king of Assyria shut him up, and bound him in prison.
A. M. 3279. B.C. 725. found conspiracy
king of Egypt
Then the king of Assyria came up throughout all the land, and went up to Samaria, and besieged it three years.
A. M. 3281-3283. B.C. 723-721. the king
In the ninth year of Hoshea the king of Assyria took Samaria, and carried Israel away into Assyria, and placed them in Halah and in Habor by the river of Gozan, and in the cities of the Medes.
A. M. 3283. B.C. 721. the king of Assyria
For so it was, that the children of Israel had sinned against the LORD their God, which had brought them up out of the land of Egypt, from under the hand of Pharaoh king of Egypt, and had feared other gods,
and had feared
And walked in the statutes of the heathen, whom the LORD cast out from before the children of Israel, and of the kings of Israel, which they had made.
of the kings of Israel
And the children of Israel did secretly those things that were not right against the LORD their God, and they built them high places in all their cities, from the tower of the watchmen to the fenced city.
from the tower
And they set them up images and groves in every high hill, and under every green tree:
Heb. statues. groves.
And there they burnt incense in all the high places, as did the heathen whom the LORD carried away before them; and wrought wicked things to provoke the LORD to anger:
For they served idols, whereof the LORD had said unto them, Ye shall not do this thing.
Ye shall not
Yet the LORD testified against Israel, and against Judah, by all the prophets, and by all the seers, saying, Turn ye from your evil ways, and keep my commandments and my statutes, according to all the law which I commanded your fathers, and which I sent to you by my servants the prophets.
Heb. the hand of all.
Notwithstanding they would not hear, but hardened their necks, like to the neck of their fathers, that did not believe in the LORD their God.
did not believe
And they rejected his statutes, and his covenant that he made with their fathers, and his testimonies which he testified against them; and they followed vanity, and became vain, and went after the heathen that were round about them, concerning whom the LORD had charged them, that they should not do like them.
And they left all the commandments of the LORD their God, and made them molten images, even two calves, and made a grove, and worshipped all the host of heaven, and served Baal.
And they caused their sons and their daughters to pass through the fire, and used divination and enchantments, and sold themselves to do evil in the sight of the LORD, to provoke him to anger.
in the sight
Therefore the LORD was very angry with Israel, and removed them out of his sight: there was none left but the tribe of Judah only.
Also Judah kept not the commandments of the LORD their God, but walked in the statutes of Israel which they made.
And the LORD rejected all the seed of Israel, and afflicted them, and delivered them into the hand of spoilers, until he had cast them out of his sight.
all the seed
until he had cast
For he rent Israel from the house of David; and they made Jeroboam the son of Nebat king: and Jeroboam drave Israel from following the LORD, and made them sin a great sin.
For he rent
a great sin
For the children of Israel walked in all the sins of Jeroboam which he did; they departed not from them;
walked in all the sins
Until the LORD removed Israel out of his sight, as he had said by all his servants the prophets. So was Israel carried away out of their own land to Assyria unto this day.
as he had said
So was Israel
And the king of Assyria brought men from Babylon, and from Cuthah, and from Ava, and from Hamath, and from Sepharvaim, and placed them in the cities of Samaria instead of the children of Israel: and they possessed Samaria, and dwelt in the cities thereof.
A. M. 3326. B.C. 678. the king
in the cities thereof
And so it was at the beginning of their dwelling there, that they feared not the LORD: therefore the LORD sent lions among them, which slew some of them.
the Lord sent
Wherefore they spake to the king of Assyria, saying, The nations which thou hast removed, and placed in the cities of Samaria, know not the manner of the God of the land: therefore he hath sent lions among them, and, behold, they slay them, because they know not the manner of the God of the land.
Then the king of Assyria commanded, saying, Carry thither one of the priests whom ye brought from thence; and let them go and dwell there, and let him teach them the manner of the God of the land.
one of the priests
Then one of the priests whom they had carried away from Samaria came and dwelt in Bethel, and taught them how they should fear the LORD.
Howbeit every nation made gods of their own, and put them in the houses of the high places which the Samaritans had made, every nation in their cities wherein they dwelt.
And the men of Babylon made Succothbenoth, and the men of Cuth made Nergal, and the men of Hamath made Ashima,
Succoth benoth, literally "the tents of the daughters."
Cuth is probably the Cush watered by the Gihon, or Araxes, now Aras (Ge 2:13,) the ancient country of the Scythians, where we meet with the Quitians, CoÎthians, or CoÎtÊ, and Cytheans, and the cities of Cotatis, Cetemane, Cythanum, Cyta, Cethena, etc.
Supposed to denote the solar orb; the emblem of which, according to the Rabbins, was a cock.
Jarchi says this idol was of the form of a goat.
And the Avites made Nibhaz and Tartak, and the Sepharvites burnt their children in fire to Adrammelech and Anammelech, the gods of Sepharvaim.
Supposed to be the same as the Anubis of the Egyptians; and was in form partly a dog and partly a man.
burnt their children
So they feared the LORD, and made unto themselves of the lowest of them priests of the high places, which sacrificed for them in the houses of the high places.
made unto themselves
They feared the LORD, and served their own gods, after the manner of the nations whom they carried away from thence.
whom they carried, etc
or, who carried them away from thence. The new inhabitants of the land imitated the idolatrous Israelites, by associating their idols with Jehovah, as the objects of worship. The remainder, however, of the verses seem to relate to the Israelites after they were carried captive. They still persevered in idolatry and disobedience; and not being purified, were left to be consumed in the furnace. It is said that the Israelites "did not fear the Lord," yet the heathens, who followed their example, are said "to have feared the Lord." The Israelites did not so much as fear the wrath of Almighty God; but, on the other hand, the poor pagans feared the power of his wrath, and to avert it paid some ignorant worship, according to the wretched instructions given them. As this was an external acknowledgement of his power and Godhead, and a homage paid to him,he was pleased in consequence to withdraw his judgements from them.--SCOTT
Unto this day they do after the former manners: they fear not the LORD, neither do they after their statutes, or after their ordinances, or after the law and commandment which the LORD commanded the children of Jacob, whom he named Israel;
whom he named Israel
With whom the LORD had made a covenant, and charged them, saying, Ye shall not fear other gods, nor bow yourselves to them, nor serve them, nor sacrifice to them:
fear other gods
But the LORD, who brought you up out of the land of Egypt with great power and a stretched out arm, him shall ye fear, and him shall ye worship, and to him shall ye do sacrifice.
him shall ye fear
And the statutes, and the ordinances, and the law, and the commandment, which he wrote for you, ye shall observe to do for evermore; and ye shall not fear other gods.
wrote for you
and ye shall not
And the covenant that I have made with you ye shall not forget; neither shall ye fear other gods.
ye shall not forget
But the LORD your God ye shall fear; and he shall deliver you out of the hand of all your enemies.
he shall deliver
Howbeit they did not hearken, but they did after their former manner.
they did not
but they did
So these nations feared the LORD, and served their graven images, both their children, and their children's children: as did their fathers, so do they unto this day.