And it came to pass, after the year was expired, at the time when kings go forth to battle, that David sent Joab, and his servants with him, and all Israel; and they destroyed the children of Ammon, and besieged Rabbah. But David tarried still at Jerusalem.
A. M. 2969. B.C. 1035. An. Ex. Is. 456. after the year, etc. Heb. at the return of the year
at the time
The sacred historian seems to intimate that there was one particular time of the year to which military operations were limited; and Josephus informs us that this took place in the beginning of spring. In another part of his works he says, that as soon as spring was begun, Adad levied and led forth his army against the Hebrews. Antiochus also prepared to invade Judea at the first appearance of spring; and Vespasian marched to Antipatris at the commencement of the same season. The kings and armies of the East, says Chardin, do not march but when there is grass, and when they can encamp, which is in April. This rule, however, seems to be disregarded in modern times.
And it came to pass in an eveningtide, that David arose from off his bed, and walked upon the roof of the king's house: and from the roof he saw a woman washing herself; and the woman was very beautiful to look upon.
the roof of
And David sent and enquired after the woman. And one said, Is not this Bathsheba, the daughter of Eliam, the wife of Uriah the Hittite?
or, Bath-shua. Eliam. or, Ammiel.
And David sent messengers, and took her; and she came in unto him, and he lay with her; for she was purified from her uncleanness: and she returned unto her house.
she was, etc
or, and when she had purified herself, etc., she returned.
And the woman conceived, and sent and told David, and said, I am with child.
I am with child
And David sent to Joab, saying, Send me Uriah the Hittite. And Joab sent Uriah to David.
And when Uriah was come unto him, David demanded of him how Joab did, and how the people did, and how the war prospered.
how Joab did
Heb. of the peace of Joab.
And David said to Uriah, Go down to thy house, and wash thy feet. And Uriah departed out of the king's house, and there followed him a mess of meat from the king.
there followed him
Heb. there went out after him.
But Uriah slept at the door of the king's house with all the servants of his lord, and went not down to his house.
And Uriah said unto David, The ark, and Israel, and Judah, abide in tents; and my lord Joab, and the servants of my lord, are encamped in the open fields; shall I then go into mine house, to eat and to drink, and to lie with my wife? as thou livest, and as thy soul liveth, I will not do this thing.
shall I then
as thou livest
And David said to Uriah, Tarry here to day also, and to morrow I will let thee depart. So Uriah abode in Jerusalem that day, and the morrow.
And when David had called him, he did eat and drink before him; and he made him drunk: and at even he went out to lie on his bed with the servants of his lord, but went not down to his house.
with the servants
And it came to pass in the morning, that David wrote a letter to Joab, and sent it by the hand of Uriah.
wrote a letter
It was resolved in David's breast that Uriah must die--that innocent, valiant, and gallant man, who was ready to sacrifice his life for the honour of his prince; and, worse than all, by being himself made the bearer of letters to Joab which prescribed the mode by which he was to be murdered. This was the greatest treachery and villany on the part of David; while Joab appears to enter as fully upon the execution of the murder, being perhaps pleased to have this opportunity of further enthralling his king, and thus increasing his own power.
And he wrote in the letter, saying, Set ye Uriah in the forefront of the hottest battle, and retire ye from him, that he may be smitten, and die.
Heb. strong. from him. Heb. from after him. and die.
And it came to pass, when Joab observed the city, that he assigned Uriah unto a place where he knew that valiant men were.
And the men of the city went out, and fought with Joab: and there fell some of the people of the servants of David; and Uriah the Hittite died also.
Who smote Abimelech the son of Jerubbesheth? did not a woman cast a piece of a millstone upon him from the wall, that he died in Thebez? why went ye nigh the wall? then say thou, Thy servant Uriah the Hittite is dead also.
Then David said unto the messenger, Thus shalt thou say unto Joab, Let not this thing displease thee, for the sword devoureth one as well as another: make thy battle more strong against the city, and overthrow it: and encourage thou him.
Heb. be evil in thine eyes. for the sword.
Heb. so and such. What abominable hypocrisy was here! He well knew that the death of this noble and gallant man was no chance-medley: he was by his own order thrust on the sword.
And when the wife of Uriah heard that Uriah her husband was dead, she mourned for her husband.
And when the mourning was past, David sent and fetched her to his house, and she became his wife, and bare him a son. But the thing that David had done displeased the LORD.
And when, etc
The whole of her conduct indicates that she observed the form, without feeling the power of sorrow. She lost a captain, and got a king for her husband: and therefore, Lacrymas non sponte cadentes effudit; gemitusque expressit pectore laeto; "She shed reluctant tears; and forced out groans from a joyful breast!"
But the thing
Heb. was evil in the eyes of.