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Treasury of Scripture Knowledge: 1 Samuel 4

Chapter 4

And the word of Samuel came to all Israel. Now Israel went out against the Philistines to battle, and pitched beside Ebenezer: and the Philistines pitched in Aphek.

A. M. 2863. B.C. 1141. An. Ex. Is. 350. came. or, came to pass. Heb. was



That is, the place afterwards so called: See the Parallel Texts.

5:1 7:12


This Aphek was situated in the tribe of Judah, and is probably the same as Aphekah.

Joshua 15:53 It must be carefully distinguished from that near Jezreel, and another in Asher.; 29:1 Joshua 19:30 1 Kings 20:30

And the Philistines put themselves in array against Israel: and when they joined battle, Israel was smitten before the Philistines: and they slew of the army in the field about four thousand men.



they joined battle

Heb. the battle was spread. Israel.

Joshua 7:5-8,12 Psalms 44:9,10

and they

Psalms 79:7,8 106:40,41 Lamentations 3:40

the army

Heb. the array.

And when the people were come into the camp, the elders of Israel said, Wherefore hath the LORD smitten us to day before the Philistines? Let us fetch the ark of the covenant of the LORD out of Shiloh unto us, that, when it cometh among us, it may save us out of the hand of our enemies.


Deuteronomy 29:24 Psalms 74:1,11 Isaiah 50:1 58:3

Let us

14:18 Numbers 31:6 Joshua 6:4,5 2 Samuel 15:25 Isaiah 1:11-15 Jeremiah 7:4,8-15 Matthew 3:9,10


Heb. take unto us. the ark.

Numbers 10:33 Deuteronomy 31:26 Joshua 4:7 1 Chronicles 17:1 Jeremiah 3:16 Hebrews 9:4

it may save

Jeremiah 7:8-11 Amos 5:21,22 Matthew 23:25-28 Romans 2:28,29 1 Corinthians 10:1-5 2 Timothy 3:5 1 Peter 3:21 Jude 1:5

So the people sent to Shiloh, that they might bring from thence the ark of the covenant of the LORD of hosts, which dwelleth between the cherubims: and the two sons of Eli, Hophni and Phinehas, were there with the ark of the covenant of God.

which dwelleth

2 Samuel 6:2 2 Kings 19:15 Psalms 80:1 99:1

the cherubims

Exodus 25:18-22 Numbers 7:89


2:12-17,22 Psalms 50:16,17 Malachi 1:9 Acts 19:15,16

with the ark

Numbers 4:5,15

And when the ark of the covenant of the LORD came into the camp, all Israel shouted with a great shout, so that the earth rang again.

all Israel

They vainly supposed that the ark would save them, when the God of it had departed from them because of their wickedness.

Judges 15:14 Job 20:5 Jeremiah 7:4 Amos 6:3 Micah 2:11

And when the Philistines heard the noise of the shout, they said, What meaneth the noise of this great shout in the camp of the Hebrews? And they understood that the ark of the LORD was come into the camp.

What meaneth

Exodus 32:17,18

And the Philistines were afraid, for they said, God is come into the camp. And they said, Woe unto us! for there hath not been such a thing heretofore.

were afraid

Exodus 14:25 15:14-16 Deuteronomy 32:30


Heb. yesterday or the third day.

Woe unto us! who shall deliver us out of the hand of these mighty Gods? these are the Gods that smote the Egyptians with all the plagues in the wilderness.


Exodus 7:5 9:14 Psalms 78:43-51

Be strong, and quit yourselves like men, O ye Philistines, that ye be not servants unto the Hebrews, as they have been to you: quit yourselves like men, and fight.

Be strong

2 Samuel 10:12 1 Corinthians 16:13 Ephesians 6:10,11

as they have

Deuteronomy 28:47,48 Judges 10:7 13:1 Isaiah 14:2 33:1

quit yourselves like men

Heb. be men.

And the Philistines fought, and Israel was smitten, and they fled every man into his tent: and there was a very great slaughter; for there fell of Israel thirty thousand footmen.


2 Leviticus 26:17 Deuteronomy 28:25 Psalms 78:9,60-64

every man

2 Samuel 20:1 1 Kings 12:16 22:36 2 Kings 14:12

a very great

2 Samuel 18:7 2 Chronicles 13:17 28:5,6 Isaiah 10:3-6

And the ark of God was taken; and the two sons of Eli, Hophni and Phinehas, were slain.

the ark

2:32 Psalms 78:61

the two sons

2:34 Psalms 78:64 Isaiah 3:11

were slain

Heb. died.

And there ran a man of Benjamin out of the army, and came to Shiloh the same day with his clothes rent, and with earth upon his head.

with his clothes rent

These, as we have already remarked, were the general signs of sorrow and distress.

2 Samuel 1:2

with earth

Joshua 7:6 2 Samuel 13:19 15:32 Nehemiah 9:1 Job 2:12

And when he came, lo, Eli sat upon a seat by the wayside watching: for his heart trembled for the ark of God. And when the man came into the city, and told it, all the city cried out.

sat upon


his heart

Joshua 7:9 Nehemiah 1:3,4 Psalms 26:8 79:1-8 137:4-6

And when Eli heard the noise of the crying, he said, What meaneth the noise of this tumult? And the man came in hastily, and told Eli.

What meaneth

Verse 15

Now Eli was ninety and eight years old; and his eyes were dim, that he could not see.


3:2 Psalms 90:10

and his eyes

Genesis 27:1

were dim

Heb. stood.

And the man said unto Eli, I am he that came out of the army, and I fled to day out of the army. And he said, What is there done, my son?

What is there done

Heb. What is the thing.

2 Samuel 1:4

my son

3:6 Joshua 7:19

And the messenger answered and said, Israel is fled before the Philistines, and there hath been also a great slaughter among the people, and thy two sons also, Hophni and Phinehas, are dead, and the ark of God is taken.


10,11 3:11

And it came to pass, when he made mention of the ark of God, that he fell from off the seat backward by the side of the gate, and his neck brake, and he died: for he was an old man, and heavy. And he had judged Israel forty years.

when he made

21,22 Psalms 26:8 42:3,10 69:9 Lamentations 2:15-19

his neck

2:31,32 3:12,13 Leviticus 10:3 1 Corinthians 11:30-32 1 Peter 4:17,18

And he had

"He seems to have been a judge to do justice only, and that in south-west Israel."

And about the time of her death the women that stood by her said unto her, Fear not; for thou hast born a son. But she answered not, neither did she regard it.

Fear not

Genesis 35:17,18 John 16:21

neither did she regard it

Heb. and set not her heart.

Psalms 77:2

And she named the child Ichabod, saying, The glory is departed from Israel: because the ark of God was taken, and because of her father in law and her husband.


that is, Where is the glory?. or, There is no glory. The glory.

Psalms 26:8 78:61,64 106:20 Jeremiah 2:11 Hosea 9:12

And she said, The glory is departed from Israel: for the ark of God is taken.

The glory

Psalms 137:5,6 John 2:17