And it came to pass, when Jabin king of Hazor had heard those things, that he sent to Jobab king of Madon, and to the king of Shimron, and to the king of Achshaph,
The LXX. read [MarÛn] which, if legitimate, Calmet thinks may be the same as Maronia or Marath, in Phoenicia, to the north of mount Lebanon, ch. 12:19, 20; 19:15, 25.
Supposed to be the same with Symira, in Coele-Syria, joined to Maron or Marath by Pliny and Pomponius Mela.
Supposed by some to be the same as Achzib or Ecdippa; from which, however, it is distinguished in ch. 19:25, 29. It was in the northern part of the tribe of Asher.
And to the kings that were on the north of the mountains, and of the plains south of Chinneroth, and in the valley, and in the borders of Dor on the west,
on the north
Jerome and others suppose this city to be same as was afterwards called Tiberias, now Tabaria, situated on the western shore of the lake of the same name.
And to the Canaanite on the east and on the west, and to the Amorite, and the Hittite, and the Perizzite, and the Jebusite in the mountains, and to the Hivite under Hermon in the land of Mizpeh.
And they went out, they and all their hosts with them, much people, even as the sand that is upon the sea shore in multitude, with horses and chariots very many.
as the sand
And when all these kings were met together, they came and pitched together at the waters of Merom, to fight against Israel.
Heb. assembled by appointment. waters. This is what Josephus calls the lake Semechon, now called Bahr-el-HoulÈ (Lake Julius) between the head of the Jordan and the lake of Tiberias. According to Josephus it was seven miles long; and according to modern authorities, it is not above two miles broad, except at the north end, where it may be four.
And the LORD said unto Joshua, Be not afraid because of them: for to morrow about this time will I deliver them up all slain before Israel: thou shalt hough their horses, and burn their chariots with fire.
So Joshua came, and all the people of war with him, against them by the waters of Merom suddenly; and they fell upon them.
And the LORD delivered them into the hand of Israel, who smote them, and chased them unto great Zidon, and unto Misrephothmaim, and unto the valley of Mizpeh eastward; and they smote them, until they left them none remaining.
or, salt pits. Heb. burning of waters.
And Joshua did unto them as the LORD bade him: he houghed their horses, and burnt their chariots with fire.
And Joshua at that time turned back, and took Hazor, and smote the king thereof with the sword: for Hazor beforetime was the head of all those kingdoms.
And they smote all the souls that were therein with the edge of the sword, utterly destroying them: there was not any left to breathe: and he burnt Hazor with fire.
any left to breathe
Heb. any breath.
And all the cities of those kings, and all the kings of them, did Joshua take, and smote them with the edge of the sword, and he utterly destroyed them, as Moses the servant of the LORD commanded.
But as for the cities that stood still in their strength, Israel burned none of them, save Hazor only; that did Joshua burn.
Heb. on their heap. The Vulgate, Syriac, Onkelos and Waterland render ‚l tillom, "on their hills." As the cities of the plain might be easily attacked and carried, Joshua destroyed them; but as those on mountains, hills, or other eminences, might be retained by him with little trouble, prudence would dictate their preservation.
And all the spoil of these cities, and the cattle, the children of Israel took for a prey unto themselves; but every man they smote with the edge of the sword, until they had destroyed them, neither left they any to breathe.
As the LORD commanded Moses his servant, so did Moses command Joshua, and so did Joshua; he left nothing undone of all that the LORD commanded Moses.
so did Moses
and so did Joshua
he left nothing
Heb. removed nothing.
So Joshua took all that land, the hills, and all the south country, and all the land of Goshen, and the valley, and the plain, and the mountain of Israel, and the valley of the same;
all that land
Even from the mount Halak, that goeth up to Seir, even unto Baalgad in the valley of Lebanon under mount Hermon: and all their kings he took, and smote them, and slew them.
the mount Halak
or, the smooth mountain. that goeth.
Joshua made war a long time with all those kings.
a long time
Caleb was forty years old when sent from Kadesh-barnea to spy the land, and he was eighty-five at the conclusion of this war. (ch. 14:10.) Almost thirty-nine years of this time were spent before Israel passed Jordan; which leaves between six and seven for the term of Joshua's wars.
There was not a city that made peace with the children of Israel, save the Hivites the inhabitants of Gibeon: all other they took in battle.
For it was of the LORD to harden their hearts, that they should come against Israel in battle, that he might destroy them utterly, and that they might have no favour, but that he might destroy them, as the LORD commanded Moses.
as the Lord
And at that time came Joshua, and cut off the Anakims from the mountains, from Hebron, from Debir, from Anab, and from all the mountains of Judah, and from all the mountains of Israel: Joshua destroyed them utterly with their cities.
There was none of the Anakims left in the land of the children of Israel: only in Gaza, in Gath, and in Ashdod, there remained.
only in Gaza
So Joshua took the whole land, according to all that the LORD said unto Moses; and Joshua gave it for an inheritance unto Israel according to their divisions by their tribes. And the land rested from war.