Make thee two trumpets of silver; of a whole piece shalt thou make them: that thou mayest use them for the calling of the assembly, and for the journeying of the camps.
The necessity of such instruments will at once appear, when the amazing extent of this army is considered. There were various kinds of trumpets among the ancients, of different forms and materials, as Eustathius shews on Homer, where he mentions six; the second of which was [stroggule] turned up round, like a ram's horn; which he says the Egyptians used (from being invented by Osiris) when they assembled the people to their sacrifices. But in opposition to that form, Moses commands these to be made long, in the shape of those used at present. So Josephus informs us, who says they were near a cubit long; the tube of the thickness of a common pipe or flute; the mouth no wider than just to admit blowing into them; and their ends wide like those of a modern trumpet.
of a whole piece
And when they shall blow with them, all the assembly shall assemble themselves to thee at the door of the tabernacle of the congregation.
And if they blow but with one trumpet, then the princes, which are heads of the thousands of Israel, shall gather themselves unto thee.
When ye blow an alarm, then the camps that lie on the east parts shall go forward.
When ye blow an alarm the second time, then the camps that lie on the south side shall take their journey: they shall blow an alarm for their journeys.
A single alarm was a signal for the eastward division to march; two such alarms the signal for the south; and probably three for the west, and four for the North. There appears therefore, a deficiency in the Hebrew Text, which is thus supplied by the LXX.: [kai salpieite semasian triten, kai exarousin ai parembolai ai paremballousai para thalassan. kai salpieite semasian tetarten, kai exarousin ai parembolai ai paremballousai pros bomran.] "And when ye blow a third alarm, or signal, the camps on the west shall march; and when ye blow a fourth alarm, the camps on the north shall march." This addition, however, is not acknowledged by the Samaritan, nor any other version than the Coptic, nor any MS. yet collated.
But when the congregation is to be gathered together, ye shall blow, but ye shall not sound an alarm.
ye shall blow
And the sons of Aaron, the priests, shall blow with the trumpets; and they shall be to you for an ordinance for ever throughout your generations.
And if ye go to war in your land against the enemy that oppresseth you, then ye shall blow an alarm with the trumpets; and ye shall be remembered before the LORD your God, and ye shall be saved from your enemies.
if ye go
then ye shall
Also in the day of your gladness, and in your solemn days, and in the beginnings of your months, ye shall blow with the trumpets over your burnt offerings, and over the sacrifices of your peace offerings; that they may be to you for a memorial before your God: I am the LORD your God.
in the day
29:1 Leviticus 23:24 25:9,10 1 Chronicles 15:24,28 16:42 2 Chronicles 5:12,13 7:6 2 Chronicles 29:26,28 Ezra 3:10 Nehemiah 12:35 Psalms 81:3 89:15 98:5,6 150:3 Isaiah 27:13 55:1-4 Matthew 11:28 1 Corinthians 15:52 1 Thessalonians 4:16,18 Revelation 22:17
And it came to pass on the twentieth day of the second month, in the second year, that the cloud was taken up from off the tabernacle of the testimony.
Ex. Is 2. Ijar. on. The Israelites had lain encamped in the wilderness of Sinai about eleven months and twenty days (comp. Ex 19:1); and they now received the order of God to decamp, and proceed to the promised land: the Samaritan, therefore, introduces at this place, nearly the words of De 1:6-8: "And Jehovah spake unto Moses, saying, Ye have dwelt long enough in this mount; turn, and take your journey, etc."
And the children of Israel took their journeys out of the wilderness of Sinai; and the cloud rested in the wilderness of Paran.
out of the
And they first took their journey according to the commandment of the LORD by the hand of Moses.
In the first place went the standard of the camp of the children of Judah according to their armies: and over his host was Nahshon the son of Amminadab.
the first place
The following is the order in which this vast company marched:
And over the host of the tribe of the children of Issachar was Nethaneel the son of Zuar.
And over the host of the tribe of the children of Zebulun was Eliab the son of Helon.
And the tabernacle was taken down; and the sons of Gershon and the sons of Merari set forward, bearing the tabernacle.
And the standard of the camp of Reuben set forward according to their armies: and over his host was Elizur the son of Shedeur.
And over the host of the tribe of the children of Simeon was Shelumiel the son of Zurishaddai.
And over the host of the tribe of the children of Gad was Eliasaph the son of Deuel.
son of Reuel
And the Kohathites set forward, bearing the sanctuary: and the other did set up the tabernacle against they came.
the other did
that is, the Gershonites and the Merarites.
And the standard of the camp of the children of Ephraim set forward according to their armies: and over his host was Elishama the son of Ammihud.
And over the host of the tribe of the children of Manasseh was Gamaliel the son of Pedahzur.
And over the host of the tribe of the children of Benjamin was Abidan the son of Gideoni.
And the standard of the camp of the children of Dan set forward, which was the rereward of all the camps throughout their hosts: and over his host was Ahiezer the son of Ammishaddai.
And over the host of the tribe of the children of Asher was Pagiel the son of Ocran.
And over the host of the tribe of the children of Naphtali was Ahira the son of Enan.
Thus were the journeyings of the children of Israel according to their armies, when they set forward.
Heb. These. according.
And Moses said unto Hobab, the son of Raguel the Midianite, Moses' father in law, We are journeying unto the place of which the LORD said, I will give it you: come thou with us, and we will do thee good: for the LORD hath spoken good concerning Israel.
for the Lord
And he said unto him, I will not go; but I will depart to mine own land, and to my kindred.
And he said, Leave us not, I pray thee; forasmuch as thou knowest how we are to encamp in the wilderness, and thou mayest be to us instead of eyes.
As the Israelites were under the immediate direction of God himself, and were guided by the pillar of cloud and fire, it might be supposed that they had no need of Hobab. But it should be remembered, that the cloud directed only their general journeys, not their particular excursions. Parties took several journeys while the grand army lay still. (ch. 13; 20; 31; 32.)
instead of eyes
And it shall be, if thou go with us, yea, it shall be, that what goodness the LORD shall do unto us, the same will we do unto thee.
And they departed from the mount of the LORD three days' journey: and the ark of the covenant of the LORD went before them in the three days' journey, to search out a resting place for them.
a resting place
And the cloud of the LORD was upon them by day, when they went out of the camp.
And it came to pass, when the ark set forward, that Moses said, Rise up, LORD, and let thine enemies be scattered; and let them that hate thee flee before thee.
Rise up, Lord
And when it rested, he said, Return, O LORD, unto the many thousands of Israel.
Return, O Lord
many thousands of Israel
Heb. ten thousand thousands.