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Treasury of Scripture Knowledge: Exodus 22

Chapter 22

If a man shall steal an ox, or a sheep, and kill it, or sell it; he shall restore five oxen for an ox, and four sheep for a sheep.


or, goat. he shall. There is a smaller compensation required in other things, (ver. 9,) and also a disproportion between an ox and a sheep. The reason of the former is, as Maimonides explains it, because money, goods, etc., are better guarded in houses and cities, than cattle in a field; which consequently can be more easily stolen. The reason of the latter seems to be, as it is explained by Bishop Patrick, that an ox was of greater value, and more useful for the purposes of husbandry.

Leviticus 6:1-6 Numbers 5:7 2 Samuel 12:6 Proverbs 6:31 Luke 19:8

five oxen

Proverbs 14:4

If a thief be found breaking up, and be smitten that he die, there shall no blood be shed for him.


Job 24:14 30:5 Hosea 7:1 Joel 2:9 Matthew 6:19,20 24:43 1 Thessalonians 5:2

no blood

Numbers 35:27

If the sun be risen upon him, there shall be blood shed for him; for he should make full restitution; if he have nothing, then he shall be sold for his theft.

then he shall

21:2 Judges 2:14 10:7 Isaiah 50:1

If the theft be certainly found in his hand alive, whether it be ox, or ass, or sheep; he shall restore double.



he shall restore double

1,7,9 Proverbs 6:31 Isaiah 40:2 Jeremiah 16:18 Revelation 18:6

If a man shall cause a field or vineyard to be eaten, and shall put in his beast, and shall feed in another man's field; of the best of his own field, and of the best of his own vineyard, shall he make restitution.

shall he make restitution

3,12 21:34 Job 20:18

If fire break out, and catch in thorns, so that the stacks of corn, or the standing corn, or the field, be consumed therewith; he that kindled the fire shall surely make restitution.

If fire break out

Mr. Harmer observes, that it is a common custom in the East to set the dry herbage on fire; which fires, from want of care, often produce great damage. Hence a law to guard against such evils was highly expedient.

so that the stacks of corn

Judges 15:4,5 2 Samuel 14:30,31

he that kindled the fire

9,12 21:33,34

If a man shall deliver unto his neighbour money or stuff to keep, and it be stolen out of the man's house; if the thief be found, let him pay double.

if the thief be found

Proverbs 6:30,31 Jeremiah 2:26 John 12:6 1 Corinthians 6:10

let him pay double

Verse 8

If the thief be not found, then the master of the house shall be brought unto the judges, to see whether he have put his hand unto his neighbour's goods.

the judges

28 *marg:; 21:6 Deuteronomy 16:18 19:17,18 1 Chronicles 23:4 Psalms 82:1

For all manner of trespass, whether it be for ox, for ass, for sheep, for raiment, or for any manner of lost thing, which another challengeth to be his, the cause of both parties shall come before the judges; and whom the judges shall condemn, he shall pay double unto his neighbour.

for all manner of trespass

Numbers 5:6,7 1 Kings 8:31 Matthew 6:14,15 18:15,35 Luke 17:3,4

the cause of both parties

18:21,22 23:6-8 Deuteronomy 16:18,19 25:1 2 Chronicles 19:10

pay double unto his


If a man deliver unto his neighbour an ass, or an ox, or a sheep, or any beast, to keep; and it die, or be hurt, or driven away, no man seeing it:

Genesis 39:8 Luke 12:48 16:11 2 Timothy 1:12

Then shall an oath of the LORD be between them both, that he hath not put his hand unto his neighbour's goods; and the owner of it shall accept thereof, and he shall not make it good.

an oath of the Lord

Leviticus 5:1 6:3 1 Kings 2:42,43 Proverbs 30:9 Hebrews 6:16

that he hath not

8 23:1

And if it be stolen from him, he shall make restitution unto the owner thereof.

stolen from him

7 Genesis 31:39

If it be torn in pieces, then let him bring it for witness, and he shall not make good that which was torn.

torn in pieces

Ezekiel 4:14 Amos 3:12 Micah 5:8 Nahum 2:12

let him bring it for witness

Or, rather, "Let him bring" aid hatteraiphah, an evidence of the thing torn, such as the horns, hoofs, etc.

And if a man borrow ought of his neighbour, and it be hurt, or die, the owner thereof being not with it, he shall surely make it good.


Deuteronomy 15:2 23:19,20 Nehemiah 5:4 Psalms 37:21 Matthew 5:42 Luke 6:35

make it good

11 21:34 Leviticus 24:18

But if the owner thereof be with it, he shall not make it good: if it be an hired thing, it came for his hire.

it came for his hire

Zechariah 8:10

And if a man entice a maid that is not betrothed, and lie with her, he shall surely endow her to be his wife.

a man entice

Genesis 34:2-4 Deuteronomy 22:28,29

If her father utterly refuse to give her unto him, he shall pay money according to the dowry of virgins.


Deuteronomy 7:3,4


Heb. weigh.

Genesis 23:16

dowry of virgins

Genesis 34:12 Deuteronomy 22:29 1 Samuel 18:25

Thou shalt not suffer a witch to live.

Leviticus 19:26,31 20:6,27 Deuteronomy 18:10,11 1 Samuel 28:3,9 Isaiah 19:3 Acts 8:9-11 Acts 16:16-19 19:19 Galatians 5:20 Revelation 22:15

Whosoever lieth with a beast shall surely be put to death.

Leviticus 18:23,25 20:15,16 Deuteronomy 27:21

He that sacrificeth unto any god, save unto the LORD only, he shall be utterly destroyed.


Numbers 25:2-4,7,8 Deuteronomy 13:1-15 17:2-5 18:20


Numbers 21:3 Joshua 23:15,16

Thou shalt neither vex a stranger, nor oppress him: for ye were strangers in the land of Egypt.

vex a stranger

23:9 Leviticus 19:33 25:35 Deuteronomy 10:19 Jeremiah 7:6 22:3 Zechariah 7:10 Malachi 3:5

for ye were strangers

20:2 23:9 Deuteronomy 10:19 15:15 23:7

Ye shall not afflict any widow, or fatherless child.

Deuteronomy 10:18 24:17 27:19 Psalms 94:6,7 Isaiah 1:17,23 10:2 Ezekiel 22:7 Zechariah 7:10 James 1:27

If thou afflict them in any wise, and they cry at all unto me, I will surely hear their cry;

they cry at all

Deuteronomy 15:9 24:15 Job 31:38,39 35:9 Luke 18:7

I will surely

Job 34:28 Psalms 10:17,18 18:6 140:12 145:19 146:7-9 Proverbs 22:22,23 Proverbs 23:10,11 James 5:4

And my wrath shall wax hot, and I will kill you with the sword; and your wives shall be widows, and your children fatherless.

my wrath

Job 31:23 Psalms 69:24 76:7 90:11 Nahum 1:6 Romans 2:5-9 Hebrews 10:31

your wives

Job 27:13-15 Psalms 78:63,64 109:9 Jeremiah 15:8 18:21 Lamentations 5:3 Luke 6:38

If thou lend money to any of my people that is poor by thee, thou shalt not be to him as an usurer, neither shalt thou lay upon him usury.

Leviticus 25:35-37 Deuteronomy 23:19,20 2 Kings 4:1,7 Nehemiah 5:2-5,7,10,11 Psalms 15:5 Proverbs 28:8 Jeremiah 15:10 Ezekiel 18:8,17 Matthew 25:27 Luke 19:23

If thou at all take thy neighbour's raiment to pledge, thou shalt deliver it unto him by that the sun goeth down:

to pledge

Deuteronomy 24:6,10-13,17 Job 22:6 24:3,9 Proverbs 20:16 22:27 Ezekiel 18:7,16 Ezekiel 33:15 Amos 2:8

For that is his covering only, it is his raiment for his skin: wherein shall he sleep? and it shall come to pass, when he crieth unto me, that I will hear; for I am gracious.

when he crieth

2:23,24 Psalms 34:6 72:12 Isaiah 19:20

for I am gracious

34:6 2 Chronicles 30:9 Psalms 86:15 136:10,11

Thou shalt not revile the gods, nor curse the ruler of thy people.

the gods

or, judges.

8,9 Psalms 32:6 82:1-7 138:1 John 10:34,35

nor curse

21:17 1 Samuel 24:6,10 26:9 Ecclesiastes 10:20 Acts 23:3,5 Romans 13:2-7 Titus 3:1,2 1 Peter 2:17 2 Peter 2:10 Jude 1:8

Thou shalt not delay to offer the first of thy ripe fruits, and of thy liquors: the firstborn of thy sons shalt thou give unto me.

shalt not delay

23:16,19 Deuteronomy 26:2-10 2 Kings 4:42 2 Chronicles 31:5 Proverbs 3:9,10 Ezekiel 20:40 Micah 7:1 Matthew 6:33 Romans 8:23 James 1:18

the first of they ripe fruits

Heb. they fulness. liquors. Heb. tear. the firstborn.

13:2,12 34:19

Likewise shalt thou do with thine oxen, and with thy sheep: seven days it shall be with his dam; on the eighth day thou shalt give it me.


Deuteronomy 15:19

seven days

Leviticus 22:27

And ye shall be holy men unto me: neither shall ye eat any flesh that is torn of beasts in the field; ye shall cast it to the dogs.


19:5,6 Leviticus 11:45 19:2 Deuteronomy 14:21 1 Peter 1:15,16


Leviticus 17:15,16 20:25 22:8 Deuteronomy 14:21 Ezekiel 4:14 44:31 Acts 10:14 15:20